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Философия жизни это в философии: ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — это… Что такое ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ?

19.05.2020
Что такое Философия жизни? Философия жизни — это… Расписание тренингов. Самопознание.ру

Философия жизни является иррационалистическим направлением европейской философии, зародившейся в конце XIX века и изучающим «жизнь из неё самой». Основателем этого направления является Ф. Ницше, а в последствии её развили Анри Бергсон, Вильгельм Дильтей и Освальд Шпенглер и Шопенгауэр.

Философия жизни противостояла эпохи романтизма того времени и рационализма. Сочетая буддийские и кантианские идеи, Шопенгауэр заявил, что самым главным является мировая воля.

При этом философия жизни не является учением о жизни, а способом философствования, рассуждения, который стремится понять жизнь, минуя абстрактные метафизические понятия, беря за основу целостность и ценность жизни.

Ницше отвергал в философствовании использование разума и рационализма, так как это могло убить саму жизнь. В качестве познания предлагалось опираться на интуицию, чувства. Таким образом, Ницше решил одну из главных проблем философии — отношения разума (мышления) и жизни, разделив их, чем привлёк внимание множества других философов.

Введя понятие «жизни», он заявил, что именно жизнь является источником всего и что всё исходит именно из неё: живые существа, материя, сознание и прочее. По его мнению, жизнь не исчезает в абсолюте, поскольку она присуща нам самим.

В связи с этим появляется возможность преодолеть дуализм объекта и субъекта, а раз всё присуще жизни, то я и есть жизнь. Сознание в данном случае является одним из феноменов жизни и не может познать мир. Более того, сознание отделяется от мира, подобно болезни на теле человека, пытающейся отделиться от него. Поэтому сознание, дух чужды миру, и являются средствами на службе у жизни. Истинный человек — это человек, который облает мощной жизненной силой, жизненными инстинктами, в котором присутствует хаотичное, страстное начало. Интеллект превращает человека в животное, которое существует по законам рабской морали и искусственным законам науки.

Фридрих Ницше также ввёл понятие «воли к власти», которая является основной движущей силой, стимулом эволюции, пронизывающей всё наше существование.

Философия Ницше была несколько экстравагантной, имела больше символическую ненаучную форму. Этот недостаток устранили Вильгельм Дильтей и Анри Бергсон, развив идею Ницше дальше и придав ей такое обличие, чтобы она стала близка и понятна разным людям: атеистам, интеллектуалам, католическим интеллигентам.

Анри Бергсон развил тему «воли к власти«, назвав её «жизненным прорывом», который никогда не воплощается полностью ни в каких делах, обладает постоянной изменчивостью и чистой длительностью, которая проявлена в человеке, как внутренние переживания жизни.

Дильтей завил о том, что метафизика есть лишь проекция тотальности жизни на существование. Душевная связь — переживания души, психики, которые легли в основу литературы, искусства, мифологии, исторических событий. Объясняя, мы опираемся на интеллект, но понимаем происходящее через переживания нашей души. Именно поэтому человек всегда больше понимает, чем знает, а переживает больше, чем понимает.

Шленглер раскрыл тему противоположности судьбы и причинности в истории, как о противоположности органической логики, логики неорганического, застывшего и логики жизни. Они относятся друг к другу, как пространство и время. Он рассматривал различные культуры, как некий организм, который проходит стадии рождения и умирания. Когда жизненные силы исчерпаны, культура превращается в цивилизацию, в нечто неживое, механическое, искусственное.

Философия жизни положила начало для развития таких направлений, как экзистенционализм, герменевтики, феноменологии. Элементы философии были заимствованы некоторыми представителями гуманитарных наук.

что это такое для человека, философский смысл

Что такое жизнь, каковы ее цель и смысл, интересует каждого индивида. На протяжении многих веков попытки осмыслить существование человека позволили создать различные философские и религиозные направления. Каждая концепция и учение по-своему относятся к вопросам жизни, формируя новые подходы к ее пониманию. Попытаться разобраться с основными правилами построения жизни человека поможет подробный философский разбор частных взглядов на это явление.

Философия

Философия

Жизнь что такое

Движение в пространстве и времени, при котором происходит развитие личности, приобретаются опыт, навыки и знания, затрачивается энергия на взаимодействие с другими индивидуумами – вот что значит жизнь.

Важно! Точное определение и характерные признаки у этого явления отсутствуют.

Виды понятия

Виды понятия

Жизнь – понятие, которое можно рассматривать с разных точек зрения:

  1. Физической. Непрерывный процесс, который сопровождается накоплением и рассеиванием энергии для того, чтобы увеличить или уменьшить хаос в системе – это и есть настоящая жизнь, о чем подробно повествует наука физика.
  2. Биологической. Согласно этому взгляду, общественное существование представляет собой особую форму живой материи, в каждой клетке которой протекают физические и химические процессы. Основными критериями развивающегося организма являются: рост, метаболизм, реакции на раздражители и размножение. Пока человек дышит, он продолжает жить.
  3. Если рассматривать этот термин с психологическим или культурным уклоном, можно обнаружить более 7 миллиардов определений, так как каждый взрослый человек и ребенок трактуют это явление по-своему.

Понятие жизни в философии

Более 30 столетий философы и пророки разных народов мира стремятся познать жизнь, понять, что это такое, и каковы ее границы. Спиноза, Сократ, Диоген, Антисфен и другие мудрецы сводили свои размышления к тому, что фундамент существования всего живого на земле сводится к поиску цели бытия.

Важно! Поэтому жизнь в философии – это своеобразный ключ к определению главных мотивов и путей развития мира, а также самосовершенствованию человека через его осмысленную созидательную деятельность.

Бенедикт Спиноза

Бенедикт Спиноза

Нередко, чтобы понять этот термин, в древних трактатах использовалось сопоставление со смертью и небытием. Жизнь как бытие – это устаревшее философское определение.

Дополнительная информация. На смену рациональному познанию мира в современное время пришли иррациональные взгляды. Вера, инстинкты и чувства стали основными инструментами, которые позволяют постичь реальное существование.

Иррационализм и философия жизни

Иррационализм представляет собой свод философских концепций, которые отрицают, что разум – ключ к познанию мира. Это направление современных учений поддерживает мысль о том, что существуют области миропонимания, которые можно характеризовать только при помощи:

  • инстинктов;
  • чувств;
  • интуиции;
  • веры;
  • откровений.

Фундамент иррационализма в западно-европейской философии заложили Фридрих Ницше, Артур Шопенгауэр и Серен Кьеркегор.

Представители иррационализма

Представители иррационализма

Важно! С точки зрения датского философа Кьеркегора, рационализм игнорирует действительность, заостряя внимание на отвлеченных вещах. Он считал, что жизнь – это индивидуальная субъективность, которая позволяет страдать, переживать, чувствовать, стремиться к чему-то.

Шопенгауэр считал, что в мире отсутствует разум. В нем процветает только воля, которая заставляет все процессы и явления усиленно развиваться. В жизни человека она формируется в виде страстей:

  • мстительности;
  • властолюбия;
  • любви и других чувств.

Воля к жизни не находит окончательного удовлетворения, так как присутствует постоянная гонка за полным спектром эмоций.

У человека есть три главных блага:

  • свобода;
  • молодость;
  • здоровье.

Их ценность человек способен осознать только тогда, когда потеряет. Из-за этого концепция Шопенгауэра рассматривает жизнь как вечное страдание и скорбь. Если на время бесталанному парню или девушке удается избавиться от негативного чувства, они столкнуться со скукой.

Дополнительная информация. Поэтому уныние, скорбь и страдания  являются неизменными спутниками в человеческом существовании. Чтобы избавиться от «серых» будней, требуется искоренить волю.

Из-за этих философских умозаключений Шопенгауэр назвал свою концепцию – пессимизмом. А. Бергсон, Ф. Ницше развили его основные идеи. Центральным понятием термина «жизнь» стала мысль о том, что это непрерывный творческий процесс становления всего живого.

Важно! Ницше считал, что логика – это абсурд, разум ничтожен, и они идут в противовес динамическому развитию на Земле.

По его мнению, человек является высокомерным насекомым, который всеми путями будет пытаться добраться до власти над слабыми. Поэтому он практически ничем не отличается от животного.

А. Бергсон рассматривал жизнь как соединение биологического и духовного в человеке.

Концепция А. Бергсона

Концепция А. Бергсона

Дополнительная информация. Именно Бергсон ввел в обиход понятие «закрытого» и «открытого» общества. Для первого характерны инстинкт, автоматизм, низкий интеллект. Для второго – влечение и любовь.

Только благодаря внутренней морали, религиозности, творческой и эмоциональной свободе можно говорить о том, что личность действительно живет. Без инстинктов – двигателей существования реализовать эту возможность не получится.

Смысл жизни человека

Смысл жизни – это осознанное и значимое свойство, ради которого человек устанавливает и реализует жизненные цели.

Дополнительная информация. Благодаря ему, личность способна определить свое место в мире и перейти на более высокий духовный уровень.

Кратко о смысле жизни сказать нельзя, так как эта тема затрагивает интересы каждого индивида. Каждый человек рано или поздно задается вопросом о цели пребывания на Земле. Чаще такие мысли возникают в юном возрасте, когда необходимо выбрать жизненный путь.

Важно! Нередко размышления о смысле жизни посещают человека в старости, в том числе в предсмертном состоянии. Главная ценность человека в отдельные эпохи воспринималась по-разному.

Подходы к осмыслению существования

Подходы к осмыслению существования

Существовали различные подходы к трактовке предназначения:

  • смысл кроется в духовной связи с самой жизнью;
  • предназначение выносится за пределы действительности;
  • человек сам устанавливает цель собственной жизни;
  • смысл жизни отсутствует.

Первый подход включает в себя религиозную версию, согласно которой Бог задал смысл жизни человеку при создании. Это означает, что каждую личность он создал по своему подобию, обеспечил свободной волей. Поэтому главный смысл человека заключается в усовершенствовании до божественного образа путем сохранения и очищения собственной бессмертной души.

Важно! Согласно философскому взгляду, смысл жизни человека кроется в процессе улучшения духовного развития. При этом не важно, как, к примеру, женщина жила до осознания предназначения. В отличие от религиозной концепции, смысл жизни кроется в ней самой.

Для второго подхода характерен вынос смысла жизни за пределы человеческого существования. Согласно этой концепции, развитие индивида должно проходить на благо грядущего поколения, а также во имя справедливости, культуры и идеалов. Такой подход делает человека средством достижения целей будущего населения Земли. Сторонники третьего подхода считают, что сознательная и волевая личность самостоятельно способна придумать для себя смысл жизни.

Важно! Воля, которая игнорирует человеческое бытие и навязывает собственные условия существования, может привести к опасности: крушению целей, пустоте и даже гибели.

Для четвертого подхода характерно отсутствие какого-либо смысла человеческой жизни. Согласно этому взгляду, человек приходит в этот мир случайно и покидает его аналогичным образом. Если во вселенной цикличны все процессы, то события смерти и рождения повторяются без какой-либо миссии.

Его цель и предназначение

О главном предназначении человека споры ведутся до сих пор.

Основные вопросы, которые волнуют людей

Основные вопросы, которые волнуют людей

В философии существует множество точек зрения, которые пытаются «открыть глаза» на цели пребывания индивида на Земле:

  1. Согласно атеистическим взглядам, главное предназначение живых существ – воспроизводство себе подобных. Жизнь человека может стать ценностью только в том случае, если он сможет улучшить собственный труд и реализовать создание продуктов и товаров.
  2. Главной целью человека, согласно нигилистическим взглядам, выступают получение удовольствия от жизни, а также удовлетворение основных нужд.
  3. Гуманистический подход к предназначению индивида на первый план ставит науку биологию и биологическое воспроизведение, в совокупности с расширением повсеместного благополучия.
  4. Согласно трансгуманизму, предназначение каждого индивида кроется не только в улучшении человеческой расы, но и совершенствовании тела при помощи новых технологий.
  5. Прагматичный подход требует от людей ставить перед собой только те цели, которые позволяют ценить жизнь. Также прагматики утверждают, что собственное предназначение человек способен узнать только опытным путем. Вчерашние ошибки – это важный ключ к сегодняшней комфортной жизни, поэтому они занимают ключевое значение в существовании индивида.

При размышлении о том, что такое жизнь для каждого человека, каков ее состав, нельзя прийти к какому-то одному выводу. Множество подходов к познанию предназначения позволяет выбрать собственный путь. Относиться ли к жизни как к дару или не видеть в ней ценности, каждая личность решает самостоятельно.

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ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — это… Что такое ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ?

— направление, преимущественно в немецкой и отчасти французской философии, сложившееся в последней трети XIX — начале XX веков.

Ф.ж. возникла как оппозиция классическому рационализму и как реакция на кризис механистического естествознания. Теоретики Ф.ж. обратились к жизни как первичной реальности, целостному органическому процессу, предшествующему разделению материи и духа, бытия и сознания. Само понятие жизни многозначно и неопределенно, дает простор для различных трактовок: оно понимается и в биологическом (Ницше, Клагес), и в космологическом (Бергсон), и в культурно-историческом планах (Дильтей, Зиммель, Шпенглер). Это деление в известной мере условно, т.к. указанные моменты часто переплетаются и в рамках одной концепции.

У Ницше первичная жизненная реальность выступает в форме «воли к власти» (Ницше следовал здесь традиции А. Шопенгауэра). В концепции Бергсона жизнь как космический «жизненный порыв» , сутью которого является «сознание или сверхсознание», постигается по аналогии с сознательными, душевными процессами, исходя из внутреннего переживания. У Дильтея и Зиммеля жизнь также выступает как поток переживаний, но сами эти переживания истолковываются как культурно-исторически обусловленные. Во всех трактовках жизнь представляет собой целостный процесс непрерывного творческого становления, развития, противостоящий механическим, неорганическим образованиям, всему определенному, застывшему и «ставшему». Процесс жизни неподвластен омертвляющей, разлагающей аналитической деятельности рассудка.

Антисциентизм Ф.ж. вытекает из утверждения о том, что разум по самой своей природе безнадежно оторван от жизни; рассудочно-механистическое познание и опирающаяся на него наука могут постичь лишь отношения между вещами, но не сами вещи. Рациональное познание объявляется Ф.ж. ориентированным на удовлетворение чисто практических интересов, действующим из соображений утилитарной целесообразности.



Позитивно-научному познанию противопоставляются интуитивные, образно-символические способы постижения иррациональной в своей основе жизненной реальности (интуиция у Бергсона, Ницше и Шпенглера, понимание у Дильтея). С этим связан и унаследованный Ф.ж. от нем. романтизма (Новалис, А. и Ф. Шлегели) эстетизм. Наиболее адекватным средством постижения и выражения жизни объявляется произведение искусства, рациональные методы познания  сменяет эстетическая интуиция, вчувствование, вживание и т.п., также заимствованные из арсенала художественно-эстетического освоения мира. Ф.ж. уделяет особое внимание интуитивно-бессознательным основам творческого процесса, мифу. Во многих случаях сама философия сближается с мифологией (Ницше, Шпенглер). Так, у Ницше основные философские представления обретают форму мифа (учения о «сверхчеловеке», «вечном возвращении»). Представители Ф.ж. часто использовали метафорический, афористический стиль выражения, поставив проблему принципиальной невыразимости феноменов жизни в традиционных философских категориях.

Одна из центральных проблем Ф.ж. — проблема творчества. Ее решение в рамках Ф.ж. внутренне противоречиво не только из-за резкого противопоставления рациональных и интуитивных форм познания. Подчеркивая значение индивидуального творчества, личной самореализации человека, она в то же время погружает его в поток безличного становления, представляя тем самым творчество как процесс и результат биологической адаптации.

Важное значение в Ф.ж. имела также проблема времени как сути творчества, развития, становления. Время в его органическом понимании противопоставлено как механистическому, «кинематографическому» (Бергсон) времени науки, так и пространству (Шпенглер, Бергсон). С этим обостренным чувством времени связана тема истории, исторического творчества. Антиномия философии и науки выступает в Ф.ж. как противоположность «описательной» и «объяснительной» психологии (Дильтей). На первом плане здесь — методология историко-гуманитарного знания («наук о духе»). Близкие к постановке этих проблем в неокантианстве, Дильтей и Зиммель, однако, выдвигают иные методологические принципы, существенно расширяя рамки гносеологизма неокантианцев. Развивая антитезу «наук о природе» и «наук о духе», Дильтей видит опору в психологии, но не в «объяснительной», экспериментальной, действующей рациональными методами и использующей понятие причинности, а в «описательной» психологии, способной постичь «основную душевную связь» с помощью переживания, непосредственного проникновения в суть явлений. «Описательная» психология выступает здесь методологией философского знания, теоретической основой «наук о духе».

В концепции Шпенглера способом исторического познания является интуиция, вчувствование, также дающие непосредственное знание  исторических событий. Такой подход при его абсолютизации неизбежно обусловливает субъективизм в исследовании истории, хотя и содержит в себе целый ряд реальных проблем методологии истории. Сама история предстает в Ф.ж. как ряд замкнутых культурных систем (Дильтей), уникальных и неповторимых «культурных организмов» (Шпенглер), проходящих в своем развитии процесс, подобный биологическому циклу живого организма от рождения до гибели. Так, по Шпенглеру, каждая культура, вырастая из развертывания соответствующей души (прафеномена), в процессе развития сменяется цивилизацией, где движение замещается покоем, творчество — бесплодием, органические взаимосвязи вырождаются в чисто механические и т.п. Исторический процесс подчиняется «судьбе», в отличие от природы, в которой господствует закон причинности (Шпенглер, Зиммель). Тем самым история выводится из-под власти объективных закономерностей, действующих лишь в мире природы. Историческое развитие культурных организмов приобретает, согласно Ф.ж., циклический характер. Понимание культур как абсолютно своеобразных и непостижимых друг для друга оборачивается релятивизмом, отрицанием единого исторического процесса развития человечества. Традиция описания представителями Ф.ж. особенностей социальных организмов, социальных процессов (напр., представления о «цивилизации» у Шпенглера, «закрытом обществе» у Бергсона) легла в основу более поздних концепций «массового общества».

Влияние Ф.ж. было наиболее сильным в первой четверти XX в. Затем на смену ей пришли во многом опирающиеся на ее принципы, но существенно преобразовавшие их персонализм, экзистенциализм и другие течения.

И. И. Блауберг

Риккерт Г. Философия жизни. Пг., 1922; Кутлунин А.Г. Немецкая философия жизни.  Критические очерки. Иркутск, 1986; O.-F. Bollnow. Die Lebensphilosophie. В., Gottingen, 1958.

Современная западная философия. Энциклопедический словарь. — М.: Культурная революция.
О. Хеффе, В. С. Малахов, В. П. Филатов.
2009.

ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ • Большая российская энциклопедия
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Авторы: П. П. Гайденко

ФИЛОСО́ФИЯ ЖИ́ЗНИ (нем. Lebensphi­lo­sophie), фи­лос. те­че­ние, по­лу­чив­шее пре­иму­ще­ст­вен­ное раз­ви­тие в Гер­ма­нии в кон. 19 – нач. 20 вв., вы­дви­га­ло в ка­че­ст­ве ис­ход­но­го по­ня­тия «жизнь» как не­кую ин­туи­тив­но по­сти­гае­мую це­ло­ст­ную ре­аль­ность. Ф. ж. яви­лась вы­ра­же­ни­ем кри­зи­са клас­сич. но­во­ев­ро­пей­ско­го ра­цио­на­лиз­ма. Она вы­сту­пи­ла про­тив гос­под­ства ме­то­до­ло­гиз­ма и гно­сео­ло­гиз­ма в та­ких фи­лос. на­прав­ле­ни­ях 2-й пол. 19 – нач. 20 вв., как нео­кан­ти­ан­ст­во и по­зи­ти­визм. При этом са­мо по­ня­тие «жизнь» мно­го­знач­но и по-раз­но­му ис­тол­ко­вы­ва­лось в разл. ва­ри­ан­тах фи­ло­со­фии жиз­ни.

Био­ло­ги­че­ски-на­ту­ра­ли­стич. тол­ко­ва­ние ха­рак­тер­но для те­че­ния, вос­хо­дя­ще­го к Ф. Ниц­ше и пред­став­лен­но­го Л. Кла­ге­сом, Т. Лес­син­гом и др.; «жи­вое» под­чёр­ки­ва­ет­ся как не­что ес­те­ст­вен­ное в про­ти­во­по­лож­ность ме­ха­ни­че­ски скон­ст­руи­ро­ван­но­му, «ис­кус­ст­вен­но­му». Для это­го ва­ри­ан­та Ф. ж. ха­рак­тер­ны оп­по­зи­ция «ду­ху» и «ра­зу­му», по­пыт­ки све­сти лю­бую идею к «ви­таль­ным вле­че­ни­ям», «ин­те­ре­сам», «ин­стинк­там», «во­ле» ин­ди­ви­да или об­ществ. груп­пы, праг­ма­тич. трак­тов­ка нрав­ст­вен­но­сти и по­зна­ния (доб­ро и ис­ти­на – то, что уси­ли­ва­ет пер­вич­ное жиз­нен­ное на­ча­ло, зло и ложь – то, что его ос­лаб­ля­ет), под­ме­на лич­но­ст­но­го на­ча­ла ин­ди­ви­ду­аль­ным, а ин­ди­ви­да – ро­дом (то­таль­но­стью), ор­га­ни­цизм в со­цио­ло­гии.

Ис­то­ри­ци­ст­ский ва­ри­ант Ф. ж. (В. Диль­тей, О. Шпенг­лер, Г. Зим­мель, Х. Ор­те­га-и-Гас­сет) ис­хо­дит в ин­тер­пре­та­ции «жиз­ни» из не­по­средств. внутр. пе­ре­жи­ва­ния, как оно рас­кры­ва­ет­ся в сфе­ре ис­то­рич. опы­та ду­хов­ной куль­ту­ры. Ес­ли в др. ва­ри­ан­тах жиз­нен­ное на­ча­ло рас­смат­ри­ва­ет­ся как веч­ный не­из­мен­ный прин­цип бы­тия, то здесь вни­ма­ние при­ко­ва­но к ин­ди­ви­ду­аль­ным фор­мам реа­ли­за­ции жиз­ни, её не­по­вто­ри­мым куль­тур­но-ис­то­рич. об­раз­ам. При этом Ф. ж. ока­зы­ва­ет­ся не в со­стоя­нии пре­одо­леть ре­ля­ти­визм, свя­зан­ный с рас­тво­ре­ни­ем всех нравств. и куль­тур­ных цен­но­стей в по­то­ке жиз­ни, ис­то­рии. Ха­рак­тер­ное для Ф. ж. от­тал­ки­ва­ние от ме­ха­ни­стич. ес­те­ст­во­зна­ния при­ни­ма­ет фор­му про­тес­та про­тив ес­те­ст­вен­но-на­уч­но­го рас­смот­ре­ния ду­хов­ных яв­ле­ний во­об­ще, что при­во­дит к по­пыт­кам раз­ра­бо­тать спец. ме­то­ды по­зна­ния ду­ха (гер­ме­нев­ти­ка и кон­цеп­ция по­ни­маю­щей пси­хо­ло­гии у Диль­тея, мор­фо­ло­гия ис­то­рии у Шпенг­ле­ра и т. п.). Ан­ти­те­за ор­га­ни­че­ско­го и ме­ха­ни­че­ско­го пред­ста­ёт в этом ва­ри­ан­те Ф. ж. в ви­де про­ти­во­пос­тав­ле­ния куль­ту­ры и ци­ви­ли­за­ции.

Свое­об­раз­ный пан­теи­стич. ва­ри­ант Ф. ж. свя­зан с ис­тол­ко­ва­ни­ем жиз­ни как не­кой кос­мич. си­лы, «жиз­нен­но­го по­ры­ва» (А. Берг­сон), сущ­ность ко­то­ро­го – в не­пре­рыв­ном вос­про­из­ве­де­нии се­бя и твор­че­ст­ве но­вых форм; суб­стан­ция жиз­ни – чис­тая «дли­тель­ность», из­мен­чи­вость, по­сти­гае­мая ин­туи­тив­но.

Тео­рия по­зна­ния Ф. ж. – раз­но­вид­ность ин­туи­ти­виз­ма: ди­на­ми­ка жиз­ни, ин­ди­ви­ду­аль­ная при­ро­да пред­ме­та не­вы­ра­зи­ма в об­щих по­ня­ти­ях, по­сти­га­ет­ся в ак­те не­по­средств. ус­мот­ре­ния, ин­туи­ции, ко­то­рая сбли­жа­ет­ся с да­ром ху­дож. про­ник­но­ве­ния, что при­во­дит Ф. ж. к вос­кре­ше­нию па­нэ­сте­тич. кон­цеп­ций нем. ро­ман­тиз­ма, воз­ро­ж­де­нию куль­та твор­че­ст­ва и ге­ния. Ф. ж. под­чёр­ки­ва­ет прин­ци­пи­аль­ное раз­ли­чие, не­со­вмес­ти­мость фи­лос. и на­уч. под­хо­да к ми­ру: нау­ка стре­мит­ся ов­ла­деть ми­ром и под­чи­нить его, фи­ло­со­фии же свой­ст­вен­на со­зер­цат. по­зи­ция, род­ня­щая её с ис­кус­ст­вом. Наи­бо­лее аде­к­ват­ной фор­мой по­зна­ния ор­га­ни­че­ских и ду­хов­ных це­ло­ст­но­стей яв­ля­ет­ся, со­глас­но Ф. ж., ху­дож. сим­вол. В этом от­но­ше­нии Ф. ж. по­пы­та­лась опе­реть­ся на уче­ние И. В. Гё­те о пра­фе­но­ме­не как пер­во­об­ра­зе, вос­про­из­во­дя­щем се­бя во всех эле­мен­тах жи­вой струк­ту­ры. О. Шпенг­лер стре­мил­ся «раз­вёр­ты­вать» ве­ли­кие куль­ту­ры древ­но­сти и Но­во­го вре­ме­ни из «сим­во­ла пра­ду­ши» ка­ж­дой куль­ту­ры, про­из­ра­стаю­щей из это­го пра­фе­но­ме­на, по­доб­но рас­те­нию из се­ме­ни; к ана­ло­гич­но­му ме­то­ду при­бе­га­ет и Г. Зим­мель. А. Берг­сон рас­смат­ри­ва­ет вся­кую фи­лос. кон­цеп­цию как вы­ра­же­ние осн. глу­бин­ной ин­туи­ции её соз­да­те­ля, не­вы­ра­зи­мой по сво­ему су­ще­ст­ву, не­по­вто­ри­мой и ин­ди­ви­ду­аль­ной, как лич­ность её ав­то­ра.

Твор­че­ст­во вы­сту­па­ет по су­ще­ст­ву для Ф. ж. как си­но­ним жиз­ни; для Берг­со­на оно – ро­ж­де­ние но­во­го, вы­ра­же­ние бо­гат­ст­ва и изо­би­лия ро­ж­даю­щей при­ро­ды, для Зим­ме­ля и Ф. А. Сте­пу­на име­ет тра­ги­че­ски-двой­ст­вен­ный ха­рак­тер: про­дукт твор­че­ст­ва как не­что кос­ное и за­стыв­шее ста­но­вит­ся в кон­це кон­цов во вра­ж­деб­ное от­но­ше­ние к твор­цу и творч. на­ча­лу. От­сю­да над­рыв­но-бе­зыс­ход­ная ин­то­на­ция Зим­ме­ля, пе­ре­кли­каю­щая­ся с фа­та­ли­стич. па­фо­сом Шпенг­ле­ра и вос­хо­дя­щая к ми­ро­воз­зренч. кор­ню Ф. ж. – её па­фо­су судь­бы, «люб­ви к ро­ку» (Ф. Ниц­ше), про­по­ве­ди слия­ния с ир­ра­цио­на­ли­стич. сти­хи­ей жиз­ни. Тра­гич. мо­ти­вы, ле­жа­щие в ос­но­ве Ф. ж., бы­ли вос­при­ня­ты ис­кус­ст­вом кон. 19 – нач. 20 вв. (осо­бен­но сим­во­лиз­мом). Наи­боль­ше­го влия­ния Ф. ж. дос­тиг­ла в 1-й четв. 20 в., к ней тя­го­те­ли ряд пред­ста­ви­те­лей нео­ге­гель­ян­ст­ва и праг­ма­тиз­ма. В даль­ней­шем она рас­тво­ря­ет­ся в др. на­прав­ле­ни­ях фи­ло­со­фии 20 в., не­ко­то­рые её прин­ци­пы за­им­ст­ву­ют­ся сме­няю­щи­ми её эк­зи­стен­циа­лиз­мом, пер­со­на­лиз­мом и фи­ло­соф­ской ан­тро­по­ло­ги­ей.

Философия жизни — это… Что такое Философия жизни?

Философия жизни

Основные понятия
жизнь, воля, эволюция

вечное возвращение, Бог умер
интуиция и понимание
культура и цивилизация
массы, элита, сверхчеловек

Тексты
Воля к власти, Весёлая наука

Рождение трагедии, Антихрист
Так говорил Заратустра
Творческая эволюция
Закат Европы

Люди
Ницше, Бергсон, Зиммель

Дильтей, Шпенглер, Крик
Ортега-и-Гассет

Философия жизни (нем. Lebensphilosophie) — иррационалистическое течение в европейской философии, получившее преимущественное развитие в Германии в конце XIX — начале XX веков.

Происхождение

Философия жизни зародилась на фоне господства романтизма и явилась реакцией на рационализм эпохи Просвещения[1]. «Крестным отцом» этого течения считается Артур Шопенгауэр, чья философия причудливо совмещала в себе кантианские и буддийские мотивы[2]. Если мир феноменов — это представления, то единственной известной нам вещью в себе является мировая воля.

Содержание

Основной темой нового направления в философии была интуитивно постигаемая жизнь (у Бергсона также фр. Duration — длительность) как целостная и динамически развивающаяся реальность. Собственно первым её представителем считается Фридрих Ницше[3], который ввел понятие воли к власти (нем. Der Wille zur Macht), которая пронизывает всю природу, являясь стимулом эволюции, а также социальное бытие (как дионисийское или творческое начало). У французского философа Анри Бергсона аналогичным понятием является жизненный порыв (фр. Élan vital). Объективацией (результатом) воли к власти являются культурные нормы и ценности. В теории познании философии жизни господствовал интуитивизм и альтернативный объяснению принцип понимания, который сближался с неокантианским методом гуманитарных наук (Дильтей). Интеллект и разум однозначно воспринимаются как инструмент воли к власти или средство приспособления к окружающей среде. В социальной философии проводилось различие между культурой как творческим периодом развития общества и цивилизацией как объективацией культуры (Г. Зиммель, О. Шпенглер)[4]. С этим различием было тесно связано противопоставление творческой элиты (обладающей монополией на «жизненный порыв») инертным массам (Ортега-и-Гассет). Крайним случаем творческой элиты является сверхчеловек Ницше (нем. Übermensch).

Влияние

В дальнейшем философия жизни повлияла и подготовила появление герменевтики (через Дильтея)[5] и экзистенциализма[6] (через антропологию Шелера). Элементы философии жизни были заимствованы представителями гуманитарных науках (А. Тойнби, Л. Н. Гумилев), а также некоторыми идеологами Третьего Рейха (Э. Крик).

Примечания

Литература

  • Риккерт Г. Философия жизни. Изложение и критика модных течений философии нашего времени // Риккерт Г. Науки о природе и науки о культуре. — М.: Республика, 1998.

Ссылки

Философия жизни — это… Что такое Философия жизни?

        иррационалистическое философское течение конца 19 – начала 20 вв., выдвигавшее в качестве исходного понятия «жизнь» как некую интуитивно постигаемую целостную реальность, не тождественную ни духу, ни материи. Ф. ж. явилась выражением кризиса классического буржуазного рационализма. Она выступила против господства методологизма и гносеологизма в идеалистической философии 2-й половины 19 – начала 20 вв. (неокантианство, позитивизм). Социально-политические воззрения представителей Ф. ж. весьма различны: от буржуазного либерализма до консервативных позиций; в своём крайнем биологически-натуралистическом варианте она оказала влияние на формирование идеологии национал-социализма в Германии.

         Понятие «жизнь» многозначно и по-разному толкуется в различных вариантах Ф. ж. Биологически-натуралистическое толкование характерно для течения, восходящего к Ф. Ницше и представленного Л. Клагесом, Т. Лессингом и др.: «живое» подчёркивается как нечто естественное в противоположность механически сконструированному, «искусственному». Для этого варианта Ф. ж. характерна оппозиция не только материализму, но и идеалистическому рационализму – «духу» и «разуму», склонность к примитиву и культу силы, попытки свести любую идею к «интересам», «инстинктам», «воле» индивида или общественной группы, прагматическая трактовка нравственности и познания (добро и истина – то, что усиливает первичное жизненное начало, зло и ложь – то, что его ослабляет), подмена личностного начала индивидуальным, а индивида – родом (тотальностью), органицизм в социологии.
         «Исторический» вариант Ф. ж. (В. Дильтей, Г. Зиммель, Х. Ортега-и-Гасет) исходит в интерпретации «жизни» из непосредственного внутреннего переживания, как оно раскрывается в сфере исторического опыта духовной культуры.

Если в др. вариантах жизненное начало рассматривается как вечный неизменный принцип бытия, то здесь внимание приковано к индивидуальным формам реализации жизни, её неповторимым, уникальным культурно-историческим образам. При этом Ф. ж. оказывается не в состоянии преодолеть релятивизм, связанный с растворением всех нравственных и культурных ценностей в потоке «жизни», истории. Характерное для Ф. ж. отталкивание от механистического естествознания принимает форму протеста против естественнонаучного рассмотрения духовных явлений вообще, что приводит к попыткам разработать специальные методы познания духа (герменевтика у Дильтея и концепция понимающей психологии (См. Понимающая психология), морфология истории у О. Шпенглера и т.п.). Антитеза органического и механического предстаёт в этом варианте Ф. ж. в виде противопоставления культуры и цивилизации.
         Др. вариант Ф. ж. связан с истолкованием «жизни» как некоей космической силы, «жизненного порыва» (А. Бергсон), сущность которого – в непрерывном воспроизведении себя и творчестве новых форм; субстанция жизни – чистая «длительность», изменчивость, постигаемая интуитивно.
         Теория познания Ф. ж. – разновидность иррационалистического Интуитивизма, динамика «жизни», индивидуальная природа предмета невыразима в общих понятиях, постигается в акте непосредственного усмотрения, интуиции, которая сближается с даром художественного проникновения, что приводит Ф. ж. к воскрешению панэстетических концепций нем. Романтизма, возрождению культа творчества и гения. Ф. ж. подчёркивает принципиальное различие, несовместимость философского и научного подхода к миру: наука стремится овладеть миром и подчинить его, философии же свойственна созерцательная позиция, роднящая её с искусством. Наиболее адекватной формой познания органических и духовных целостностей является, согласно Ф. ж., художественный Символ. В этом отношении Ф. ж. попыталась опереться на учение Гёте о прафеномене как первообразе, воспроизводящем себя во всех элементах живой структуры. Шпенглер стремился «развёртывать» великие культуры древности и нового времени из «символа прадуши» каждой культуры, произрастающей из этого прафеномена, подобно растению из семени; к аналогическому методу прибегает и Зиммель. Бергсон рассматривает всякую философскую концепцию как выражение основной глубинной интуиции её создателя, невыразимой по своему существу, неповторимой и индивидуальной, как личность её автора.
         Творчество выступает по существу для Ф. ж. как синоним жизни; для Бергсона оно – рождение нового, выражение богатства и изобилия рождающей природы, для Зиммеля и Ф. Степуна имеет трагически-двойственный характер: продукт творчества как нечто косное и застывшее становится в конце концов во враждебное отношение к творцу и творческому началу. Отсюда надрывно-безысходная интонация Зиммеля, перекликающаяся с фаталистическим пафосом Шпенглера и восходящая к мировоззренческому корню Ф. ж. – её пафосу судьбы, «любви к року» (Ницше), проповеди слияния с иррационалистической стихией жизни. Трагические мотивы, лежащие в основе Ф. ж., были восприняты искусством конца 19 – начала 20 вв. (особенно Символизмом). Наибольшего влияния Ф. ж. достигла в 1-й четверти 20 в., к ней тяготели некоторые представители неогегельянства (См. Неогегельянство), Прагматизма. В дальнейшем она растворяется в др. направлениях идеалистической философии 20 в., некоторые её принципы заимствуются сменяющими её Экзистенциализмом, Персонализмом и др.

         Лит.: Риккерт Г., Философия жизни, П., 1922; Современная буржуазная философия, М., 1972, с. 112–175; Messer A., Lebensphilosophie, Lpz., 1931; Lersch Ph., Lebensphilosophie der Gegenwart, B., 1932; Bolinow О. F., Die Lebensphilosophie, B., 1958; Misch G., Lebensphilosophie und Phänomenologie, 3 Aufl., B., 1964.

         П. П. Гайденко.

ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — это… Что такое ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ?



ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ
— иррационалистическое философское течение конца XIX — начала ХХ вв., выдвинувшее в качестве исходного понятия жизни как некую интуитивно постигаемую реальность, не тождественную ни духу, ни материи. Представители: Шопенгауэр, Ницше, Бергсон. Возникла как оппозиция классическому рационализму.

Тематический философский словарь. — М.: МГУ ПС (МИИТ).
Н. А. Некрасова, С. И. Некрасов, О. Г. Садикова.
2008.

  • ФИЛОСОФИЯ ДУХА
  • ФИЛОСОФИЯ НАУКИ

Смотреть что такое «ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ» в других словарях:

  • ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — течение в философии кон. 19 нач. 20 в., выдвигавшее в качестве исходного понятия «жизнь» как основополагающую основу мира. К этому течению относятся разные по типу философствования мыслители: Ф. Ницше, В. Дильтей, А. Бергсон, О. Шпенглер, Г.… …   Философская энциклопедия

  • Философия жизни — Философия жизни …   Википедия

  • ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — направление в западно европейской философской мысли, сложившееся в последней трети 19 в. в Германии и получившее известность, главным образом, в первой трети 20 в. Ф.Ж. утрачивает самостоятельное значение после Второй мировой войны в связи с… …   История Философии: Энциклопедия

  • ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — направление в западноевропейской философской мысли, сложившееся в последней трети 19 в. в Германии и получившее известность, гл. обр., в первой трети 20 в. Ф.Ж. утрачивает самостоятельное значение после Второй мировой войны в связи с утверждением …   Новейший философский словарь

  • ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ, философское течение конца 19 начала 20 вв., исходящее из понятия жизни как некоей интуитивно постигаемой органической целостности и творческой динамики бытия. В различных вариантах этого течения жизнь истолковывается как… …   Современная энциклопедия

  • ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — философское течение кон. 19 нач. 20 вв., исходящее из понятия жизни как некоей интуитивно постигаемой органической целостности и творческой динамики бытия. В различных вариантах этого течения жизнь истолковывается как естественноорганическое… …   Большой Энциклопедический словарь

  • Философия жизни — ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ, философское течение конца 19 начала 20 вв., исходящее из понятия “жизни” как некоей интуитивно постигаемой органической целостности и творческой динамики бытия. В различных вариантах этого течения “жизнь” истолковывается как… …   Иллюстрированный энциклопедический словарь

  • ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — англ. philosophy of life; нем. Lebensphilosophie . Возникшее в 60; 70 е гг. XIX в. субъективно идеалистическое направление, представители к рого (А. Шопенгауэр, Ф. Ницше, В. Дильтей, Г. Зим мель, О. Шпенглер) в качестве основы бытия, сознания и… …   Энциклопедия социологии

  • ФИЛОСОФИЯ ЖИЗНИ — направление, преимущественно в немецкой и отчасти французской философии, сложившееся в последней трети XIX начале XX веков. Ф.ж. возникла как оппозиция классическому рационализму и как реакция на кризис механистического естествознания. Теоретики… …   Современная западная философия. Энциклопедический словарь

  • Философия жизни —         иррационалистическое философское течение конца 19 – начала 20 вв., выдвигавшее в качестве исходного понятия «жизнь» как некую интуитивно постигаемую целостную реальность, не тождественную ни духу, ни материи. Ф. ж. явилась выражением… …   Большая советская энциклопедия

  • философия жизни — философское течение конца XIX  начала XX вв., исходящее из понятия «жизни» как некоей интуитивно постигаемой органической целостности и творческой динамики бытия. В различных вариантах этого течения «жизнь» истолковывается как естественно… …   Энциклопедический словарь

Книги

  • Философия жизни, Алла Константиновна Юрина. В этом мире много разнообразных и непонятных вещей. Жизнь и смерть, высший разум человечества, деньги, любовь и прочее. Но никто не знает, что же это все на самомделе такое. Что такое… Подробнее  Купить за 400 руб электронная книга
  • Философия жизни, П. Ясинский. Данная книга содержит автобиографию определённого промежутка времени, перекликающуюся с размышлениями автора на самые различные вопросы, которые связаны с проблемами общения, достижения… Подробнее  Купить за 298 грн (только Украина)
  • Философия жизни, П. Ясинский. Данная книга содержит автобиографию определённого промежутка времени, перекликающуюся с размышлениями автора на самые различные вопросы, которые связаны с проблемами общения, достижения… Подробнее  Купить за 265 руб

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90000 Life (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) 90001

90002

The last words written by Shelley in his unfinished poem The
Triumph of Life were «Then, what is life? I cried. » Clearly
Shelley meant this in the everyday sense rather than the technical
usage of what distinguishes animate from inanimate. C.U.M Smith (1976)
in his 90003 The Problem of Life 90004 sets out to answer Shelley’s
question by addressing the problem not only of how matter could be
alive but also be conscious. Although conscious, living matter was a
problem for Democritean philosophers, it was not for other
pre-Socratics nor for Aristotle for whom living beings where
paradigmatic.»The phenomenon which seemed to [Aristotle] most
basic in the apparent flux of the world was the unity and persistence
of the individual living being «(Smith 1976, p. 72). Indeed,
Aristotle’s biology and the philosophy he developed from it was
sophisticated and enduring (Lennox 2001). Thus for Aristotle there was
no problem of life, although there was a problem for an atomist view of
nature that seemed inconsistent with biological phenomena (Rosen 1991).
Descartes radically reconceptualized the problem by his dualism of
matter and mind; life was a problem for which an explanation was to be
sought in the mechanistic interactions of matter, and there was the
question of how mind was related to the matter in living beings.As
chemistry developed as a discipline in the eighteenth and nineteenth
centuries the goal of most advanced thinkers was to develop explanatory
theories of living things in terms of chemical matter and mechanisms.
Such attempts at what must be admitted to be premature reduction were
resisted by critics, including some vitalists, whose positions covered
a wide range from romantic anti-materialists, through chemists seeking
a new type of Newtonian force ( «vital force») in nature, to
materialists who had an intuition of the importance of the organized
whole (Fruton 1972, 1999).90005

90002

The debate between the «mechanists» and the
«Vitalists» about the relationship of matter and life as
well as matter and mind, spilled over into the twentieth century,
especially during the time that biochemists were defining their field
as a separate discipline from chemistry or physiology. Four books
published around 1930 capture the flavor of the debate (Woodger 1929;
Haldane 1929 року, 1931; Hogben 1930). J.S. Haldane, a physiologist,
resisted reduction of biological phenomena to mechanistic explanations,
as he saw the structure of biological organisms and their action being
disanalogous to what was seen in physical systems.The laws of
chemistry and physics just were not robust enough to account for
biology. «It is life we ​​are studying in biology, and not
phenomena which can be represented by causal conceptions of physics and
chemistry «Haldane 1931 p. 28). He rejects, however, the search
for a vital force since it would reduce the complexity of biological
phenomena to a single principle. Rather, the phenomena of biology can
only be understood in a holistic perspective that is faithful to the
complexity observed in biological phenomena.Lancelot Hogben, in his
book 90003 The Nature of Living Matter 90004, which was dedicated to
Bertrand Russell, argues for a reductionist epistemology and ontology.
For Hogben, as for Haldane, consciousness is seen as an integral part
of the problem of life, «an inquiry into the nature of life and
the nature of consciousness presupposes the necessity of formulating
the problem in the right way «(Hogben 1930 pp. 31-32). Indeed,
«No problem of philosophy is more fundamental than the nature of
life «(Hogben 1930 p.80). But for Hogben the nature, indeed
glory, of science is that its answers are always incomplete and it does
not seek the finality that he saw as the goal of philosophy. He saw no
need to abandon the reductionist methodology that biochemistry was
developing and argued that Whitehead’s assumption that science would
reveal a universe consistent with human ethical predilections should be
reversed and that philosophy would have to conform with the findings of
science. Woodger saw the issues in the mechanist-vitalist debate as
more complex than either side admitted.The resolution would come from
a recognition of the primary importance of biological organization and
of levels of biological organization, «by a cell therefore I
shall understand a certain type of biological organization, not a
concrete entity «(Woodger 1929 року, p. 296, emphasis in original).
Woodger urged abandoning the use of the word ‘life’ in
scientific discourse on the grounds that ‘living organism’
was what had to be explained. He saw the question of how life arose as
being outside science. 90005

90002

Perhaps the venue where the issue of the nature of life was most
urgently addressed was the Department of Biochemistry at the University
of Cambridge.During the first half of the twentieth century, under the
guidance of its first Sir William Dunn Professor of Biochemistry, Sir
Frederick Gowland Hopkins, the department set much of the conceptual
framework, methodology, as well as educating many of the leaders in the
field (Needham & Baldwin 1949; Weatherall and Kamminga 1992;
Kamminga & Weatherall 1996; Weatherall & Kamminga 1996;
Kamminga 1997; de Chadarevian 2002). Hopkins’s vision of the emerging
field of biochemistry was that it was a discipline in its own right
(Not an adjunct to medicine or agriculture nor applied chemistry) that
needed to explore all biological phenomena on the chemical level.More
importantly, Hopkins had a belief that although living things did not
disobey any physical or chemical laws they instantiated them in ways
that required understanding of biological phenomena, constraints, and
functional organization. In his influential address to the British
Association for the Advancement of Science given in 1913 Hopkins
rejected both the reductionism of organic chemists who sought to deduce
in vitro what had to happen in vivo and the crypto-vitalism of many
physiologists who viewed the protoplasm of living cells as itself alive
and irreducible to chemical analysis (Hopkins 1913 [1949]).What
Hopkins offered instead was a view of the cell as a chemical machine,
obeying the laws of thermodynamics and physical chemistry generally,
but having organized molecular structures and functions. The chemistry
underlying metabolism was catalyzed and regulated by enzymes, protein
catalysts, and involved, because of biological necessity, small changes
in structure and energy of well-defined chemical intermediates. The
living cell is «not a mass of matter composed of a congregation
of like molecules, but a highly differentialed system: the cell, in the
modern phraseology of physical chemistry, is a system of co-existing
phases of different constitutions «(Hopkins 1913 [1949] p.151).
Understanding how the organization was achieved was just as important
as knowing how the chemical reactions occurred. For Hopkins life is
«A property of the cell as a whole, because it depends upon the
organization of processes «(Hopkins 1913 [тисяча дев’ятсот сорок дев’ять] p. 152). Indeed,
Hopkins was impressed with the philosophy of Whitehead with its
part / whole relationships and emphasis on processes rather than entities
(Hopkins одна тисячі дев’ятсот двадцять сім [1949]; Kamminga & Weatherall 1996) and it formed an
explicit foundation for the research program he developed at Cambridge
and became an implicit assumption in the research programs developed by
many of the students who trained there (Prebble & Weber 2003).A
member of the department, Joseph Needham became actively engaged in
carrying Hopkins’s vision to the broader intellectual community writing
on the philosophical basis of biochemistry (Needham 1925). He followed
Hopkins too in asserting that the crucial question no longer was the
relationship of living and non-living substance but also of mind and body,
with biochemistry conceding to philosophy and the then incipient
neurosciences, the latter question, so that it could focus on learning
about living matter.Another member of the biochemistry department,
N.W. Pirie, tackled the question of defining life and concluded that it
could not be adequately defined by a list of qualities nor even
processes since life «can not be defined in terms of one
variable «(Pirie 1937 p. 21-22). There was a challenge for
Hopkins’s program to figure out how rather simple physical and chemical
laws could produce the complexity of living systems. 90005

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During the 1930s an informal group, known as the Biotheoretical
Gathering met in Cambridge and included several members of the
biochemistry department (Joseph & Dorothy Needham, and Conrad
Waddington) as well as a number of other Cambridge scientists (such as
crystallographers J.D. Bernal and Dorothy Crowford Hodgkins) and
philosophers (J.H. Woodger and Karl Popper). This group was consciously
exploring the philosophical approach of Whitehead with the goal of
building a trans-disciplinary theoretical and philosophical biology
which helped lay the foundation for the conceptual triumph of molecular
biology after World War II (Abir-Am 1987; de Chadarevian 2002). The
research program of Hopkins was well established by this period and
especially through the Needhams it was linked with the work of the
Biotheoretical Gathering, influencing J.B.S. Haldane, who made major
contributions to enzymology and to forging the modern evolutionary
synthesis or neo-Darwinism. Haldane, along with Bernal, would play a
major, early role in moving the concern from beyond the nature of life
to its origin as a subject for scientific study. Haldane suspected,
along with Pirie, that a fully satisfactory definition of life was
impossible, but he asserted that the material definition was a
reasonable goal for science. He saw life as «a pattern of
chemical processes.This pattern has special properties. It begets a
similar pattern, as a flame does, but it regulates itself as a flame
does not. » (Haldane 1947 p. 56). Use of the flame metaphor for
cellular metabolic activity implied a nonequilibrium process in an open
system capable of reproduction but also, by the limit of the metaphor,
self regulation. In this Haldane reflected the shifting concern to
working out how matter and physical laws could lead to biological
phenomena. 90005

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By the time of World War II it was meaningful to address the question
of «what is life?» in molecular terms and fundamental
physical laws.It was clear that there were several distinct ways in
which matter in living systems behaved in ways different from
non-living systems. For example, how could genetic information be
instantiated at a molecular level given that ensembles of atoms or
molecules behaved statistically? Or, how could biological systems
generate and maintain their internal order in the face of the
imperative of the second law of thermodynamics that all natural
systems proceed with increasing entropy? 90005

90002

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger gave a series of lectures at the Dublin
Institute for Advanced Studies, which were published as 90003 What is
Life? 90004 in тисяча дев’ятсот сорок чотири (Schrödinger 1944).This little book had a major
impact on the development of twentieth century biology, especially upon
Francis Crick and James Watson and other founders of molecular biology
(Judson 1979; Murphy & O’Neill 1995). Schrödinger did not break
new ground, as has been pointed out by Perutz (1987), but rather
gathered together several strands of research and stated his questions
in a stark and provocative manner. Building upon the demonstration by
Max Delbrueck that the size of the ‘target’ of mutations
caused by X-rays had the dimensions of a molecule of a thousand or so
atoms, Schrödinger wondered how it could be that there could be
sustained order in the molecules responsible for heredity when it was
well known that statistical ensembles of molecules quickly became
disordered (with increased entropy as predicted by the second law of
thermodynamics).The problem of heredity then was reformulated at the
molecular level as to how order could give rise to order? The other
main topic that concerned Schrödinger was the thermodynamics of living
things in general, that is, how could they generate order from disorder
through their metabolism? It was through answering these two specific
questions from the perspective of a physicist that Schrödinger sought
to answer the big question, what is life? 90005

90002

It was the answer to the first question that captured the attention
of the founders of the new biology.Schrödinger argued that the
molecular material had to be an ‘aperiodic’ solid that had
embedded in its structure a ‘miniature code.’ That is, the
pattern of constituent atoms comprising the molecule of heredity would
not have a simple periodic repetitive order of the same constituents or
subunits, but rather would have a higher-level order due to the pattern
of its molecular subunits; it was this higher-level but aperiodic order
that would contain the coded information of heredity. The elucidation
of the structure of DNA and the explosion of our understanding of
molecular genetics has eclipsed the other, but to Schrödinger equal,
arm of the argument, namely that the most important aspect of
metabolism is that it represents the cell’s way of dealing with all the
entropy that it can not help but produce as it builds its internal
order, what Schrödinger termed ‘negentropy.’He noted that
the cell must maintain itself in a state away from equilibrium since
thermodynamic equilibrium is the very definition of death. By creating
internal order and organization within a living system (cells,
organisms or ecosystems) the metabolic activities must produce greater
disorder in the environment, such that the second law is not violated.
He tied the two notions, of order from order and order from disorder,
together by claiming, «an organism’s astonishing gift of
concentrating a ‘stream of order’ on itself and thus
escaping the decay into atomic chaos — of ‘drinking
orderliness ‘from a suitable environment — seems to be
connected with the presence of ‘aperiodic solids’, the
chromosome molecules, which doubtless represent the highest degree of
well-ordered atomic association we know of — much higher than the
ordinary periodic crystal — in virtue of the individual role
every atom and every radical is playing here «(Schrödinger тисячі дев’ятсот сорок-чотири,
77).Although Schrödinger was giving a physicist’s answer to Shelley’s
question, he did not confine himself only to the question of what
distinguished the living from the non-living and in the epilogue
reflects on free will and consciousness. As with so many previous
attempts to address the nature of life, the issue of consciousness was
seen by Schrödinger too as connected to that of life itself. 90005

90002

The impact of Schrödinger’s slim volume on a generation of
physicists and chemists who were lured to biology and who founded
molecular biology is well chronicled (Judson 1979; Kay
2000).Knowledge about the protein and nucleic acid basis of living
systems continues to be obtained at an accelerating rate, with the
sequencing of the human genome as a major landmark along this path of
discovery. The «self-replicating» DNA has become a major
metaphor for understanding all of life. The world is divided into
replicators, which are seen to be fundamental and to control
development and be the fundamental level of action for natural
selection, and interactors, the molecules and structures coded by the
replicators (Dawkins 1976, 1989).Indeed, Dawkins relegates organisms
to the status of epiphenomenal gene-vehicles, or survival machines. A
reaction has set in to what is perceived as an over-emphasis on
nucleic acid replication (see for example Keller 1995 року, 2002; Moss
2003). In particular developmental systems theorists have argued for a
causal pluralism in developmental and evolutionary biology (see essays
and references in Oyama, Griffiths, & Gray 2001). However, the
rapid progress in gene sequencing is producing fundamental insights
into the relationship of genes and morphology and has added important
dimensions to our understanding of evolutionary phenomena (see for
example Graur & Li 2000; Carroll, Grenier, & Weatehrbee
2001).90005

90002

What is less known is the over half-a-century of work inspired, in
part, by the other pillar of Schrödinger’s argument, namely how
organisms gain order from disorder through the thermodynamics of open
systems far from equilibrium (Schneider & Kay 1995). Prominent
among early students of such nonequilibrium thermodynamics was Ilya
Prigogine (1947). Prigogine influenced J. D. Bernal in his тисячі дев’ятсот сорок сім
lectures on the physical basis of life to start to understand both how
organisms produced their internal order while affected their
environment by not only their activities but through created disorder
in it (Bernal 1951).Harold Morowitz explicitly addressed the issue of
energy flow and the production of biological organization, subsequently
generalized in various ways (Morowitz 1968; Peacocke 1983; Brooks and
Wiley 1986: Wicken 1987; Schneider 1993; Swenson 2000; Morowitz 2002).
Internal order can be produced by gradients of energy (matter / energy)
flows through living systems. Structures so produced help not only draw
more energy through the system, lengthen its retention time in the
system, but also dissipate degraded energy, or entropy, to the
environment, thus paying Schrödinger’s «entropy debt.»
Living systems then are seen an instance of a more general phenomena of
dissipative structures. «With the help of this energy and matter
exchange with the environment, the system maintains its inner
non-equilibrium, and the non-equilibrium in turn maintains the exchange
process …. A dissipative structure continuously renews itself and
maintains a particular dynamic regime, a globally stable space-time
structure «(Jantsch 1980). However, thermodynamics can deal only
with the possibility that something can occur spontaneously; whether
self-organizing phenomena occur depend upon the actual specific
conditions (initial and boundary) as well as the relationships among
components (Williams & Frausto da Silva 1999).90005

90002

Seeing the cell as a thermodynamic ‘dissipative structure’
was not to be considered as reducing the cell to physics, as Bernal
pointed out, rather a richer physics of what Warren Weaver called
«Organized complexity» (in contrast to simple order or
«Disorganized complexity») was being deployed (Weaver
1948). The development of this «new» physics of open
systems and the dissipative structures that arise in them was the
fulfillment of the development that Schrödinger foresaw (Rosen 2000).Dissipative structures in physical and chemical systems are phenomena
that are explained by nonequilibrium thermodynamics (Prigogine &
Stengers 1984). The emergent, self-organizing spatio-temporal patterns
observed in the Belousov-Zhabotinski reaction are also seen in
biological systems (such as in slime mold aggregation or electrical
patterns in heart activity) (Tyson 1976; Sole and Goodwin 2000).
Indeed, related self-organizational phenomena pervade biology
(Camazine et al. 2001). Such phenomena are seen not only in cells and
organisms, but in ecosystems, which reinforces the notion that a
broader systems perspective is needed as part of the new physics
(Ulanowicz 1997).Important to such phenomena are the dynamics of
non-linear interactions (where responses of a system can be much
larger than the stimulus) and autocatalytic cycles (reaction sequences
that are closed on themselves and in which a larger quantity of one or
more starting materials is made through the processes). Given that the
catalysts in biological systems are coded in the genes of the DNA, one
place to start defining life is to view living systems as informed,
autocatalytic cyclic entities that develop and evolve under the dual
dictates of the second law of thermodynamics and of natural selection
(Depew & Weber 1995; Weber & Depew 1996).Such an approach
non-reductively connects the phenomena of living systems with basic
laws of physics and chemistry (Harold 2001). Others intuit that an
even richer physics is needed to adequately capture the
self-organizing phenomena observed in biology and speculate that a
«Fourth law» of thermodynamics about such phenomena may
ultimately be needed (Kauffman 1993, 1995, 2000). In any event,
increasingly the tools developed for the «sciences of
complexity «and being deployed to develop better models of
living systems (Depew & Weber 1995; Kauffman 2000).Robert Rosen
has reminded us that complexity is not life itself but what he terms
«The habitat of life» and that we need to make our focus
on the relational. «Organization inherently involves functions
and their interrelations «(Rosen 1991 року, 280). Whether the
existing sciences of complexity are sufficient or a newer conceptual
framework is needed remains to be seen (Harold 2001). Living beings
exhibit complex, functional organization and an ability to become more
adapted to their environments over generational time, which phenomena
represent the challenge to physically-based explanations based upon
mechanistic (reductionistic) assumptions.By appealing to complex
systems dynamics there is the possibility of physically-based theories
that can robustly address phenomena of emergence without having
recourse to the type of «vitalism» that was countenanced
by some in the earlier part of the twentieth century. 90005

90002

One of the biggest and most important of emergent phenomena is that of
the origin or emergence of life. Franklin Harold ranks the mystery of
life’s origin as the most consequential facing science today (Harold
2001, 235).Michael Ruse claims that it is essential to incorporate
origin of life resarch into Darwinism since it is a necessary
condition for a scientifically and philosophically adequate definition
of life (Ruse 2008, 101). Robert Rosen argued that the reason that
the question «what is life?» is so hard to answer is that
we really want to know much more than what it is, we want to know why
it is, «we are really asking, in physical terms, why a specific
material system is an organism and not something else «(Rosen
1991 року, 15).To answer this why question we need to understand how life
might have arisen. While not attracting the attention nor levels of
funding of molecular biology, there was a continuous research program
during much of the twentieth century on the origin of life (for
historical summaries see Fry 2000; Lahav 1999). 90005

90002

During the 1920s Alexander Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane independently
proposed the first modern hypotheses as to how life might have
originated on earth (Oparin 1929; Haldane 1929/1967).Key
assumptions were that the geophysical conditions on the primitive earth
were quite different from the present, most importantly there would
have been no molecular oxygen in the atmosphere (oxygen arising very
much later in time with the appearance of photosynthetic organisms that
used light energy to split water) and that in this chemically reducing
atmosphere an increasingly complex «soup» or organic
molecules would arise from which the precursors of living systems could
arise (for a recent discussion about the early atmosphere see Miyakawa
et al.2002). In effect this type of approach can be termed a
metabolism-first view. 90005

90002

After the demonstration that some amino acids could be produced by
the action of an electrical discharge through a mixture of gases
thought to be present in the primitive atmosphere (Miller 1953),
another possible starting point for the sequence to living things was
considered, namely proteins, the polymers of amino acids formed under
conditions of high temperature (Fox & Harada 1958). This
protein-first view suggested that the chemistry that lead to life could
have occurred in a sequestered environment (globs of proteins) that
might also have some weak catalytic activity that would have
facilitated the production of the other molecular components needed
(Fox 1988).90005

90002

With the understanding of the structure of DNA focus shifted to the
abiotic routes to nucleic acids, which could serve then serve as
templates for their own replication. Although Dawkins assumed a nucleic
acid, formed by chance, would be the start of life since it would
«Self replicate» (Dawkins 1976), many approaches to getting
to nucleic acids involve a role for minerals to help form scaffolds that
serve as sorts of ordering templates and even as catalysts for nucleic
acid formation (Cairns-Smith 1982; see summary in Lahav 1999).The
discovery that RNA is capable of some catalytic activity has led to the
postulate of not only a nucleic acids first but more generally of an
‘RNA world’ (Gilbert 1986). Variants of this approach
represent the dominant mode of thinking about the early phases of the
emergence of life (Maynard Smith and Szathmary 1995). Given that some
type of metabolism would be needed to sustain RNA replication, a number
of approaches blend replication-first with metabolism-first (Dyson
1982, 1999; de Duve 1995; Eigen 1992).90005

90002

An alternative view, congenial to a thermodynamic and systems approach
to the emergence of life, takes the above move a step further and
emphasizes the need the presence of the main factors that distinguish
cells from non-cells: metabolism via autocatalytic cycles of catalytic
polymers, replication, and a physical enclosure within a chemical
barrier like that provided by the cell membrane. This might be termed
a proto-cell-first approach (Morowitz 1992; Weber 1998; Williams &
Frausto da Silva 2002, 2003).Chemical constraints and the
self-organizing tendencies of complex chemical systems in such a view
would have been critical in determining the properties of the first
living beings. (Kauffman 1993, 1995, 2000; Williams & Frausto da
Silva 1999, 2002, 2003; Weber 2007, 2009). With the emergence of the
first entities that could be termed living would come the emergence of
biological selection or natural selection in which contingency plays a
much greater part. 90005

90002

Darwin famously bracketed the question of the origin of life from
questions of descent with modification through natural selection.Indeed, Darwinian theories of evolution can take living systems as a
given and then explore how novelties arise through a combination of
chance and necessity. However, an understanding of how life might have
emerged would provide a bridge between our view of the properties of
living systems and the evolutionary phenomena they exhibit. Such an
understanding ultimately is needed to anchor living systems in matter
and the laws of nature (Harold 2001, 235). This remains a challenge to
be met in order for science to provide a more full answer to Shelley’s
question.90005

90002

Advances in computer technology in recent years have permitted
exploration of life «90003 in silico 90004» as it were. While
computer simulations are utilized by many theoretical biologists, those
who explore ‘Artificial Life’ or ‘A-Life’ seek
to do more than model known living systems. There goal is to place life
as it is known on earth in a larger conceptual context of any possible
forms of life (Langton 1989, 1995). Work in A-Life shifts our focus on
the processes in living things rather than the material constituents of
their structures per se (Emmeche 1994).In some ways this is a revival
of the process thinking of the Cambridge biochemists of the 1930s, but
involves a level of abstraction about the material structures that
instantiate these processes that they would not have shared. However,
such studies emphasize the organizational relationship between
components rather than the components themselves, an important focus in
the emerging age of «proteomics» in which, in the post
human genome era, the complex, functional interactions of the large
array of cellular proteins is being studied (Kumar & Snyder 2002).90005

90002

A-Life studies can help us to sharpen our ideas about what
distinguishes living from non-living and contribute to our definition
of life. Such work can help delineate the degree of importance of the
typical list of attributes of living entities, such as reproduction,
metabolism, functional organization, growth, responsiveness to the
environment, movement, and short- and long-term adaptations. A-Life
work can also allow exploration about which features of life are due to
the constraints of being enmattered in a particular manner and subject
to physical and chemical laws, as well as exploring a variety of
factors that might affect evolutionary scenarios (Etxeberria 2002).For
example, the relative potential roles of selection and
self-organization in the emergence of novel traits in evolutionary time
might be evaluated by A-Life research. It is too soon yet to know how
important the contribution of the A-Life program will be, but it is
likely to become more prominent in the discourse on the origin and
nature of life. 90005

90002

Our increased understanding of the physical-chemical basis of living
systems has increased enormously over the past century and it is
possible to give a plausible definition of life in these terms.»Living organisms are autopoietic systems: self-constructing,
self-maintaining, energy-transducing autocatalytic entities «in
which information needed to construct the next generation of organisms
is stabilized in nucleic acids that replicate within the context of
whole cells and work with other developmental resources during the
life-cycles of organisms, but they are also «systems capable of
evolving by variation and natural selection: self-reproducing
entities, whose forms and functions are adapted to their environment
and reflect the composition and history of an ecosystem «(Harold
2001, 232).Such a perspective represents a fulfillment of the basic
dual insights of Schrödinger near mid-century. Much remains to be
elucidated about the relationships among the complex molecular systems
of living entities, how they are constrained by the system as a whole
as well as by physical laws. Indeed, it is still an open question for
some as to whether we have yet a sufficiently rich understanding of
the laws of nature or whether we need to seek deep laws that lead to
order and organization (Kauffman 2000).At the start of the new
century there is a sense of the importance of putting
Schrödinger’s program into a ‘systems’ context (see
for example Rosen 1991 року, 2000; Kauffman 1993, 1995, 2000; Depew and
Weber 1995; Weber & Depew 1996 року, 2001; Ulanowicz 1997, 2001;
Williams and Frausto da Silva 1999; 2002, 2003; Harold 2001; Morowitz
2002; Bunge 2003; Macdonald and Macdonald 2010). Significant
challenges remain, such as fully integrating our new view of organisms
and their action with evolutionary theory, and to understand plausible
routes for the emergence of life.The fulfillment of such a program
will give us a good sense of what life is on earth. Work in A-Life and
empirical work seeking evidence of extra-terrestrial life may help the
formulation of a more universal concept of life. 90005

.90000 The Definition of Philosophy — The Philosophy of Life 90001
90002 PART I: THE FOUNDATIONS OF PHILOSOPHY 90003
90002 Chapter 1: The Definition of Philosophy 90003
90006 The Fundamental Science 90007
90008 Philosophy is a well coordinated and systematised attempt at evaluating life and the universe as a whole, with reference to first principles that underlie all things as their causes and are implicit in all experience. It is an impartial approach to all problems and aspects of life and existence, and its studies are not devoted merely to the empirical world, as in the case of the physical and biological sciences; not restricted to the provinces of faith and authority or to the questions of the other world, as is the case with theological disquisitions; not confined to investigation of the mind and its behaviour, as in psychology; not given over merely to casuistry and ethology, as in the normative science of morality and ethics; not taken up with the consideration of civic duties and problems of administration and constitution, as in the case of politics; not concerned with the solution of problems and techniques of adjusting and ordering and discovering the origin and organisation and development of human society, like economics and sociology; but are adapted for an exhaustive treatment of the basic presuppositions of each and every one of these, as also of what is other than and beyond all these, that on which all these are ultimately founded and which is the ground of all knowledge and experience in general.Philosophy investigates the very possibility and conditions of knowledge, its extent, nature and value. It bases itself on facts already known and rises above them to absolute verities, on which all phenomena depend and by which alone they can be rationally explained. It is not circumscribed by the limitations of the past, present and future, by the laws of this place or that country, but refers to all times, places and conditions. Philosophy is the most inclusive of all branches of learning, and acts as a touchstone to all other aspects of human knowledge.90009
90008 Philosophy is a rational enquiry into the forms, contents and implications of experience. It is an attempt at a complete knowledge of being in all the phases of its manifestation in the various processes of consciousness. The discovery of the ultimate meaning and essence of existence is the central purpose of philosophy. It is the art of the perfect life, the science of reality, the foundation of the practice of righteousness, the law of the attainment of freedom and bliss, and provides a key to the meaning and appreciation of beauty.Swami Sivananda holds philosophy to be the Vedanta or the consummation of knowledge, Brahmavidya, or the sacred lore of the Eternal, which is inseparable from Yogasastra, or the methodology of the ascent of the finite to the infinite. It is the way to the knowledge of being as such, of that which is. «Philosophy is love of wisdom, or striving for wisdom. It is a moral and intellectual science which tries to explain the reality behind appearances by reducing the phenomena of the universe to ultimate causes, through the application of reason and law «(90011 Questions and Answers, p.94 90012). Philosophy has its goal in the highest generalisation conceivable, and this consists in the final grasping of the deepest meaning of existence taken as a whole. Philosophy is no doubt the grand artistic edifice constructed by the higher purified intellect of man, but to Swami Sivananda, it is not merely this, for, according to him, it is based on intuition and is meant to justify rationally one’s faith in Truth. Philosophical knowledge in the true sense of the term can not be had through sense-experience, for, the latter is confined to appearances.Thus, many of the schools of Western philosophy would be excluded from Swami Sivananda’s definition of philosophy. The architect of the monumental mansions of philosophy is not merely the abstract and unaided intellect, but the intellect free from all desires, purged of all prejudices, and based on immediate intuition. Hegel says in his 90011 Philosophy of Religion 90012: «Philosophy is not a wisdom of the world, but is knowledge of what is not of the world; it is not knowledge which concerns external mass or empirical existence and life, but is knowledge of that which is eternal, of what God is, and what flows out of His nature.»90009
90008 Swami Sivananda would agree with Hegel in holding that the supreme purpose of philosophy is not circumscribed by the contents of empirical experience but extends to the final and uncontradicted attainment of the Absolute. «Philosophy is the expression of the inner urge to know the Atman. It is the science of principles. It is the way, not simply of explaining what ought to be, but of directly experiencing that which eternally exists «(90011 Voice of Sivananda, pp.2,3 90012).Philosophy never rests contented until the permanent acquisition of non-stultified knowledge. The test of reality is non-contradiction, and philosophy is the pursuit of reality. It is spiritual realisation expressed in logical language, while passing through the mill of reason. Reason in the philosophy of Swami Sivananda is only a handmaid to the higher intuition, made use of to proclaim the truth and value of intuition in the world of sense-perception. It means that a purely intellectual philosophy can never discover reality, for, this discovery is possible only through super-sensory intuition or 90011 Sakshatkara 90012.It is never possible to produce a perfect philosophy through the instrumentality of reason alone, for, unbridled reason can easily carry consciousness away from Truth. Reason rests on the awareness of duality, on the concept of the dichotomy of existence, and Truth is non-duality. Thus, there is no similarity between the characteristics of reason and the nature of Reality. Philosophy does not pretend to give us Truth as it is, but is capable of intimating to us the existence of a super-sensible being which presses itself forward in each and every one of our experiences as their sole value, essence and justification, as the highest consummation and beatitude of all individuals in the universe.John Dewey almost hits the mark when he holds that a catholic and far-sighted theory of the adjustment of the conflicting factors of life is philosophy. 90009
90008 Philosophy is a necessary means for the possession of the higher knowledge of the Self. But, if it is defined as process of the function of the intellect, we have to note that it is not a always the sole means; for philosophy in Swami Sivananda, as in Plato, Plotinus and Spinoza, makes its appeal not merely to the intellect of man, but to the heart and the feeling as well.It is not enough to understand the teachings of philosophy, it is necessary also to feel them in the depths of one’s heart. Feeling, at least in certain respects, surpasses understanding, albeit that feeling is often strengthened by understanding. Philosophy is an intensely practical science. «Philosophy has its roots in the practical needs of man. Man wants to know about transcendental matters when he is in a reflective state. There is an urge within him to know about the secret of death, the secret of immortality, the nature of the soul, the creator and the world.»» Philosophy is the self-expression of the growing spirit in man. Philosophers are its voice «(90011 Philosophy and Teachings, p.1 90012). The Vedanta is the general term applied in India to such a philosophy of wise adjustment of value based on an undeluded perception of Reality. «One must be a practical Vedantin. Mere theorising and lecturing is only intellectual gymnastics. This will not suffice. If the Vedanta, is not practicable, no theory is of any value. One must put the Vedanta into daily practice, in every action that one does.The Vedanta teaches the oneness or unity of the Self. One must radiate love to one and all. The spirit of the Vedanta must be ingrained in one’s cells or tissues, veins, nerves and bones. It must become part and parcel of one’s nature. One must think of unity, speak of unity, and act in unity «(90011 Lectures on Yoga and Vedanta p.134 90012). Philosophy in this sense ought to become the principal occupation of enlightened life. All other pursuits of man should stem from the force of this essential vocation of human intelligence.90009
90008 Philosophy is a general exposition of the ultimate concepts, meanings and values ​​of the things of the universe, by a resort to their final causes which range beyond the reach of the senses. It becomes possible for philosophy to concern itself with metaphysical essences by resting on the strong foundation of the testimony given by sages to deep meditation and realisation. Hence the source as well as the aim of philosophy is direct experience, non-mediate, supersensory and super-logical.All knowledge that we ordinarily obtain in this world is mediate, for it requires the operation of the triune process of the knower, knowledge and the known. By this method of knowing it is not possible for us to acquire an unshakable knowledge of reality, for mediacy in knowledge does not enjoy the characteristics of permanency. The transitory nature of mediate knowledge affects the whole world of science, for this latter is sense-bound. There are certain hypothetical conceptions and principles which are absolutely necessary for obtaining scientific knowledge, using the word science in the sense in which it is understood by scientists today, and these are the notions and concepts of the existence of an extended space, of a flowing time and of the presence of material objects outside consciousness.In other words, science is a coordinated and systematised knowledge of the contents of the world as it is observed through the physical senses of man. We need not point out here that science lays too much trust in the validity of sense-perception and thus gets vitiated by the gross limitations to which the senses are obviously subject. 90009
90008 Philosophy soars above empiricality, though it takes the help of empirical concepts and categories for the sake of proclaiming to the world the truths declared by intuition.It speaks to the world in the language of the world, for the language of intuition is unintelligible to the world of experience. The form and shape of philosophy has necessarily to depend on the stuff out of which the world of experience is made, on account of its having to perform the function of transmitting the knowledge of the super-mundane ideal to the realm of mundane values. It has always within itself a living undercurrent of significance and implication which gives a vivid picture of the nature of the ultimate end to the understanding mind.Philosophy stands on the shoulders of the senses, but looks beyond them. Intuition is the soul of philosophy, and reason its body. By intuition, again, we do not mean the sensory intuition of certain Western philosophers, but the integral intuition of Consciousness, which is non-different from the Absolute. The world is based on the Absolute; it is a manifestation of the Absolute. It is the Absolute flowing and moving that appears to the senses as the world. Philosophy gives us a promise of such a majestic vision.Hence we can say, with Aristotle, it is the Fundamental Science. 90009
90006 The Metaphysics of Reality 90007
90008 Swami Sivananda differs from Hegel’s conception of philosophy as the work of the unifying Reason. Though Hegel’s Reason has its function in the unification of the categories, its goal is abstract, an Idea. To Swami Sivananda knowledge of Reality is not an Idea, but an immediate realisation of the Eternal Presence, which is consciousness and bliss in one. The Absolute is necessary for the world, but the world is not necessary for the Absolute.Undifferentiatedness and transcendence of qualities do not in any way mean reducing Reality to non-being. Here is the gulf between Hegel and Swami Sivananda. Though what is true in the world is the Absolute alone, the names and the forms of the world are not in the latter. Swami Sivananda carefully distinguishes between the gross concept of the world that the common man has in his mind and the true concept of it that the purified, analytic mind of an aspirant after Truth ought to have. The world, in his philosophy, is only a conglomeration of isolated and abstract names and forms, which, when they are thus isolated, lose all reality.The ordinary untrained mind confuses what is the permanent element in what we call the world with the abstract appearances, which are merely accidental to it. This confusion is to be found even in Hegel who, not carefully distinguishing between the eternal and the transitory characters present in the world, thinks that the existence of the world is necessary for the perfection of the Absolute. In Swami Sivananda’s philosophy, the world consists of merely the names and forms of experience and not what puts on these names and forms.It is wrong to think that the world is concrete and the Absolute abstract. The truth is that the reverse is the case. The difficulty arises due to a false appreciation of the true relation of Reality to appearance. «A clear understanding of man’s relation to God is a matter of momentous importance to students of philosophy and to all aspirants» (90011 Philosophy and Teachings, p.2 90012). In the Absolute, all the physical, mental, moral, aesthetic and spiritual aspirations of individuals find their true consummation, and hence it can not be an abstract Idea.The world is relative to perception and its goal is the Absolute. What the senses perceive is but the outer changing mode of the fact of the relativity of experience. On a careful analysis of the nature of the world it is found to fade away into nothingness until only consciousness remains. Eddington, the well-known scientist, remarks that the scientists have chased the solid substance from the continuous liquid to the atom, from the atom to the electron, and there they have lost it. 90009
90008 Matter has now ceased to be what it was to man half a century ago, and today it is more like a myth, a fable or a fancy than reality.But in spite of the repudiation of the solid reality and sensibility of the material world by the discoveries of modern science, an irrefutable and persistent feeling of reality lingers in the mind of everyone. What science has abrogated is not reality but appearance, and after everything is said, there remains the irreducible minimum of the consciousness of the Self. The Self, however, is beyond the province of science, and the scientist who has reached the boundaries of his knowledge and discovered the limitations of reason and observation is likely to be forced to accept its reality.This is actually what has happened, and great scientists like Max Planck, Einstein, James Jeans and Eddington have given intimations of that something that science is not able to say anything about. Physics is perforce landed in metaphysics. Here we become alive to the supreme function of philosophy, which declares that the super-sensuous basis of matter and energy, space, time and gravitation is the secondless Absolute. 90009
90006 The Concept of Intuitional Basis 90007
90008 Swami Sivananda accepts that our perceptions and percepts are governed by the characters of our sensibility and understanding.What we are greatly affects our ways of knowing. But on this ground he would not agree with Kant that philosophical pursuits should be given up altogether as specimens of a vain enterprise on the part of man. Kant, concerning himself too much with the individual powers of knowledge, dispenses with the metaphysics of an ultimate reality as something totally impossible. Kant’s contention is that, as knowledge is limited to the perceptual categories of the sensibility and the conceptual categories of the understanding, even our knowledge of God as such, for example, is not a possibility.Yes, we can not have a satisfactory metaphysics of reality if reason is our sole aid, for, it is true that all our knowledge is empirical and limited, being confined to the categories of the sensibility and understanding, from which no one, ordinarily, can extricate himself. But this problem does not arise in the philosophy of Swami Sivananda, for, to him, philosophy is but the embodiment in reason of the intuitional wisdom of Truth as it is. The Absolute is not the one that is coloured by the functions of the senses and the understanding, but the very presupposition of the senses, understanding and reason.It has to be emphasised again that philosophy is not the achievement of the unaided reason walking independently of the non-dualistic intuition, but is only the rational articulation of the super-rational realised in integral intuition. God, freedom and immortality are not objects of the reason, which reason has to establish independently, but represent the highest goal which reason has to justify, basing itself on the 90011 Anubhava 90012 or experience of the sages, such as those of the Upanishads.To Kant, metaphysical realities are only regulative principles or ideals of reason that have to be postulated, but can not be justified by reason. To Swami Sivananda, this is so only when Reality is bifurcated into the objects of reason and of intuition and not taken as one whole. When reason draws inspiration from non-sensory experience and breathes the air of intuition, what it declares is not merely a regulative principle but the representation of what is real in the highest sense. 90009
90008 The Reality that is established in philosophy is to be experienced in the state of deep meditation.Here consciousness and being become one. There is no way of entering into communion with it except by being it. There is no such thing as subject-object relationship in regard to the consciousness of what is universal. Either one knows it fully in non-dualistic communion or does not know it at all. The senses, the understanding and the reason are powerless instruments in one’s attempt at perfectly comprehending its nature or realising it in experience. In the realisation of the Supreme Being the mind of the individual is completely transcended, together with all its dualistic categories.The mind does not partake of the characteristics of Reality. It is not conscious and also not universal in nature. The mind is a feeble objective insentient evolute acting as the individual’s instrument in the perception of the external world, which is physical in nature. By its very nature it knows only what is outside it and can not know what is above it or what is presupposed by it. Hence nothing that is known to the human being in this empirical world can be of any use in the realm of the trans-empirical Consciousness.The objects of the senses get fused, as it were, in the constitutive essence of the Absolute. Space, time and causation, matter, energy and objects vanish in the menstruum of its stupendous existence. The Absolute of philosophy is not an object of consciousness, but is what consciousness itself is in its real and essential nature. Thus philosophy is the pathway to the realisation of the Absolute Consciousness through the ladder of the different stages of the relative consciousness. 90009
90006 Rational Presentation of Experience 90007
90008 Philosophy is not to be confused with intuition, with mystic or religious experience, though it is a very powerful aid in achieving this end.Philosophy in India is based on the revelations of the sages and provides the necessary strength to the future generation of mankind for realising this goal. In mystic or religious experience the intellect and the reason are completely transcended, while philosophy is all intellect and reason, though it is grounded ultimately in deep religious experience. While the intuitional truths are rationally explained by philosophy, it does not pretend to prove the nature of these truths through intellectual or scientific categories.Philosophy has a purely negative value-of offering an exhaustive criticism of sense-experience and logical thought and indirectly arriving at the concept of Reality by demonstrating the limitations and inadequacies of the former. All philosophy really springs from an inward dissatisfaction with immediate empirical experience consequent upon the perception of the inadequacies inherent in its very nature. This leads to a critical examination of the constituents of empirical experience and a profound study of its hidden implications.This is philosophy. A justification of the super-mental and non-temporal Absolute is attempted through a searching analysis and understanding of sense-experience and rational judgment, while the defects and implications of the latter are fully disclosed. Truly speaking, philosophy can neither be purely subjective in its approach, nor purely objective in the sense of an alienation from the perceiving subject. It will be seen in the course of the study of the principles constituting the universe that what is implied within in experience is also implied outside in the contents of experience and in the objects and the conditions that are necessary for bringing about this experience.Thus philosophy becomes a universal approach to Truth made by the subject and the object simultaneously with equal authority, meaning and strength, making no difference in value between themselves. The movement of thought is from the physical to the biological, from the biological to the logical, and from the logical to the spiritual. Philosophy should, therefore, constitute a comprehensive analysis and study of the whole of experience. It has no partialities, no prejudices, no preconceptions, no likes, no dislikes.It marches bold like a heroic warrior with truth, justice and wisdom as its supreme aims. It makes ample use of all the powers that the human individual is endowed with and reaches the farthest limit of these powers, where what it observes and studies is not that which is immediately experienced, but what is inferred from and logically implied in the facts it envisages directly in that borderland between understanding and reason. Man possesses nothing superior to reason, and so philosophy can not go beyond it.In a way philosophy is a rational criticism of reason itself, when we take reason to mean not merely an isolated abstract power of intelligence, but also all the objective factors and conditions that are necessary to make it what it is. When reason rationally knows its own limitations and also the reason why it is limited, it knows Reality in a negative way. This negative knowledge becomes the starting point of the effort towards its positive realisation in meditation and communion. 90009
90008 Philosophy has no quarrel with science; it concedes that science is necessary and useful in reinforcing its own conclusions, but it strictly warns science that it is limited to physical phenomena.We study the physical, chemical and biological laws in science, the logical and metaphysical principles in philosophy and the moral and the spiritual verities in religion and the higher mysticism. The senses, reason and intuition are our ways of knowledge in the progressive unfoldment of our nature. Science, philosophy and mysticism are true and useful in their own places and together constitute the highroad to a knowledge of life as a whole. Intuition, however, has the special advantage of being able to unfold all that the senses and reason can, and, in addition, also that which these can not hope to know with all their power.The philosophy of Swami Sivananda is not any partial approach to Truth; it is that grand integral method which combines in itself the principles and laws discovered and established by science, metaphysics and the higher religion and which embraces in its vast bosom whatever is true, good or beautiful in the universe. What he says of the Vedanta is true of all genuine philosophy aiming at the salvation of the human soul: «Vedanta is that bold philosophy which teaches the unity of life or the oneness of consciousness.»» It is that sublime philosophy which elevates the mind at once to the magnificent heights of Brahman-hood, divine splendour and glory, which makes man absolutely fearless, which destroys all barriers that separate man from man and which brings concord, unruffled peace and harmony to suffering humanity. » «It is the only philosophy that, when properly understood and practised, can put a definite stop to world wars and all dissensions, splits and skirmishes that exist in different nations and communities.»» Vedanta is a magnetic healing balm for the wounded and the afflicted in the dreadful battlefield of this dire mundane existence. Vedanta is the divine collyrium which removes the cataract of ignorance and gives a new inner eye of intuition or wisdom. » «It gives real inner spiritual strength. It inspires, renovates, vivifies, invigorates and puts a stop to the never-ending wheel of birth and death and confers immortality, infinite knowledge and bliss «(90011 Vedanta in Daily Life, pp.3-4 90012).To Plato, philosophy is the dear delight, and the philosopher is the spectator of all time and all existence, and is one who sets his affections on that which really exists. For Spinoza, it is the perception of things 90011 sub specie eternitatis 90012. 90009
90006 Classification of Themes 90007
90008 Philosophy conceived as 90011 metaphysics 90012 deals with an extensive reasoned discussion of the natures and the relations of God, world and the individual soul. The latter two are either identical in essence with God, or are attributes or parts of God, or are different from God.The ultimate Reality is either God, or the world of perception alone, or only the individual mind. God either exists or not, and is necessary or unnecessary for an explanation of experience. The world is either material or mental in nature; and consciousness is independent of or is dependent on matter. The world is either pluralistic or a single whole; and is real, ideal or unreal, empirical, pragmatic or rational. The individual is either free or bound. Questions of this nature are usually discussed under metaphysics.It also delineates the process of cosmogony and cosmology, the concepts of space, time and causation, creation, evolution and involution, as well as the presuppositions of eschatology or the discourse on the nature of life after death. The philosophical basis of modern physics and biology also can be comprised under metaphysics. Under 90011 epistemology 90012 the various theories and processes of the acquisition of right knowledge, as well as the nature and possibility of wrong knowledge, are discussed in detail.Sensation, perception, inference, comparison, verbal testimony, presumption, non-apprehension and non-relational intuition are the various phases of the ways of right knowledge. Intuition, however, is not to be classed as one of the ways of knowing, for it is the one supreme way of right knowledge, transcending all other empirical means. Knowledge is said to be erroneous when one thing is mistaken for another, whatever the reason be for this error. The several causes of error in perception are also discussed under epistemology.Under 90011 aesthetics 90012 the significance and the nature of beauty are discussed in philosophy. Beauty is either subjective or objective or relative to the subject and the object. It, again, is either real, ideal or unreal. As 90011 ethics 90012 philosophy engages itself in the ascertainment of the nature of right and wrong, good and bad. It deals with the nature of moral standards and moral judgments, the rights and the duties of the individual, the society and the state, the national and international good, the nature and function of conscience, and the like.Ethics is either naturalistic, hedonistic or metaphysical. Under 90011 psychology 90012 the constitution, function and behaviour of the mind is discussed in philosophy. Psychology, apart from its dealing with general topics, such as the springs of action, thought, intelligence, emotion, will, feeling, the relation of mind and body, the nature of internal conflict, the mechanism of sense-knowledge, etc., may be distinguished as individual, social, educational, religious, analytic and group psychology.There has been a tendency in recent times to segregate psychology, as a purely objective science, from philosophical studies that are not confined merely to the region of observation. Under 90011 axiology 90012 philosophy establishes the nature of values ​​in the different stages and views of life, such as physical values, aesthetic values, moral values, religious values, etc. 90011 Mysticism 90012 is in a way the most magnificent part of philosophical studies, though certain rationalist philosophers, in their enthusiasm to save themselves from falling into irrationalism of any kind, commit the error of not knowing that true mysticism deals with truths that range beyond and determine all rational processes of knowledge.Mysticism mostly concerns itself with the inner relation of the individual to the Eternal Being and with the various techniques of the ascent of the soul in the fulfilment of its religious and spiritual aspirations, with the picturesque experiences it undergoes and the dangers and the difficulties it has to encounter on the way, with the psychology of the phenomenon of religious consciousness and the philosophical foundations and implications of the inner path of the Spirit, and also the meditations which the seeker of Truth has to practise for the ultimate attainment.The Vedanta and the Yoga are perfected and finished systems which comprise all these branches of study, and so deserve in every sense of the term the designation of philosophy. Swami Sivananda has recorded in his works his unequivocal conclusions on these wondrous themes, which point in the end to the self-realisation of consciousness in the Absolute. 90009
90008 Though philosophy, in the system of Swami Sivananda, is mostly understood in the sense of metaphysics, ethics and mysticism, its other phases also receive in his writings due consideration, and are placed in a respectable position as honourable scions of the majestic metaphysics of his Vedanta.For him the basis of all knowledge is the existence of the Absolute Self, and perception and the other ways of knowing are meaningful on account of their being illumined by the light of this Self. Epistemological problems are, therefore, in the end, problems of the nature and the manner of the manifestation of the Absolute through the psycho-physical organism. Beauty is the vision of the Absolute through the senses and the understanding. The main material of beauty is symmetry, rhythm, harmony, equilibrium, unity, manifest in consciousness.The perception of these characteristics is the neutralisation of want and one-sidedness in consciousness, the fulfilment of personality, the completion of being, and hence a manifestation of the Absolute, in some degree, in one’s consciousness. The aesthetic consciousness is thus the result of a partial expression of the universal in conscious experience. The good is that which, directly or indirectly, leads the individual to the experience of the Absolute, which is the ultimate good. Primary virtues are those which are directly concerned with the conscious movement of the finite to the Infinite, and the secondary ones are those indirectly responsible for this attainment.The way of the good is the direction of the right. Ethics is the science of the inner conduct that is good and right. The psychological principles, to Swami Sivananda, are but certain of the several stages and functional points of the appearance of the Absolute in the evolutionary process of the external subtle universe existing behind the gross mass of the five elements. Psychology is thus one of the most interesting and essential of sciences, inasmuch as it investigates and studies the nature of the operations and behaviour of the mind, which is the medium, in the realm of relativity, of the perception of the Absolute.All values, intrinsic or extrinsic, are rooted in the judgment of the supreme value of the realisation of the Absolute, which is the eternal home of all other values ​​and in which all other values ​​find their fulfilment. Axiology has to be referred back to metaphysical studies. Mysticism, for Swami Sivananda, is the path of the practical knowledge and experience of the great truths of metaphysics, the disclosure of the realities of God, the world and the individual, the recognition, in direct intuition, of their true relations, the grand rising of the soul from the slumber of ignorance and its realisation of the beatitude of the Absolute.The several techniques of Yoga and Jnana are comprehended in mysticism of the right type, and it sums up what is usually known as the spiritual path or the way to the Life Divine. Philosophy is a term generally applied to a study of all these aspects of life’s meaning, and so it forms the most attractive pursuit of the human being in general. 90009
.90000 My Philosophy of Life and Education 90001
90002 90003 90004 90005 90003 Part
one: Philosophy of Life 90004 90008 90009
90002 When I was first asked to
write a philosophy paper, the first step I did was looking to the literary
meaning of the word «philosophy». I found that Philosophy has its roots in two
Greek words, «philos» which means (love) and «sophos» which means (wisdom). I
think that theses two meanings are the main pillars that responsible for
satisfaction and happiness in life.Life should be lived with a number of beliefs,
concepts and ideas that help people gain a comprehensive view of the world,
find answers and solve fundamental problems. I think that everyone should have
a base of cultural beliefs and values ​​to reflect on when life presents us with
trying situations. 90009
90002 90009
90002 In my life there are a number
of beliefs, values, concepts, thoughts and characteristics that describe who I am.
I am an idealist person who believes that God is the «Ultimate reality» and He
is the creator of everything.I consider being a Muslim my most defining characteristic.
My Islamic beliefs impact everything in my life. I believe that «there is no
God but Allah and Mohammed is the prophet of Allah «. I practice the five
pillars of Islam by believing in Oneness of God and
the finality of the prophet-hood of Muhammad, establishing the daily prayers,
concerning for almsgiving to the needy, self-purification through fasting and
doing pilgrimage to Makah. These five pillars are the center of my life where I
make sure to do them as the way they should be done.90009
90002 90009
90002 The source that
provides me with the principles, values, and ethical standard that direct my
life is God, then his prophet. I believe that my moral code is most closely
aligned with the ethical values ​​in the Holy Qur’an. I find my philosophy
aligned with Kent Keith’s philosophy in life, to be nice, do not harm, do not
lie, do not steal, do not cheat, do not falsely accuse others, and do not
physically or verbally abuse others. I’m guided by the values ​​of love, joy,
peace, kindness, goodness, faithfulness and patience.Other principles that
direct my life are Giving and Forgiving. God says in the holy Qur’an (Those who
spend [in Allah’s Cause — deeds of charity, alms, etc.] in prosperity and in
adversity, who repress anger, and who pardon men; verily, Allah loves
Al-Muhsinun (the good-doers) (Alomran 134-133). I believe that these two
principles are what make the world a better place to live in. Another principle
that I believe in is when I decide to do something I like to take pride in doing
it. Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) said, «God likes that when you do
anything, you do it excellently.»90009
90002 90009
90022 The base that forms my view of the world comes
from «God is Beautiful and Loves Beauty»; I believe that there is
beauty in everything God created. I like to see things in this world from this
perspective. From cosmology, to physics to geology, I sincerely believe that
there is beautiful order that explains and governs the universe, such as that
explain 90023.90000 7 Reasons Why Engineers Really Should Learn Philosophy 90001
90002 What has philosophy got to do with engineering? As it turns out everything. 90003
90002 In fact, many early great engineers also happened to be philosophers. 90003
90002 Here we will discuss why philosophy is important in many aspects of engineering and your life in general. It might just be time for you, yourself, to «stand on the shoulders of giants». 90003
90002 90009 RELATED: 30 MUST READ ENGINEERING BOOKS 90010 90003
90012 Why study engineering ethics? 90013
90002 First of all, it might be worth exploring what is actually meant by ethics.90003
90002 According to the Merriam Webster Dictionary, ethics is defined as: — 90003
90002 «The discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation.» 90003
90002 90002 90022 90023 90003 90003
90002 In this sense, it attempts to provide a framework for individuals to help them make better moral choices when dealing with other individuals. To borrow a phrase, strong personal ethics «is doing the right thing even when no one is watching.» — C. S. Lewis. 90003
90002 Ethical (and moral) principles are the foundation of trust in many industries, none more so than engineering.For engineers, like many other professions, ethics define the acceptable rules and standards that govern how we should conduct our roles as professionals. 90003
90002 They help engineers to «do the right thing» based on a set of agreed principles and practices. Ethics, in this sense, will enable engineers to deal with colleagues, clients, employees, ‘users’, and the public throughout their career. 90003
90002 By learning, and integrating, ethics into your skillset you will be able to achieve at least five beneficial outcomes: — 90003
90002 1.You will have an increased overall ethical sensitivity as an individual, 90003
90002 2. You will gain an increased knowledge of relevant standards of conduct, 90003
90002 90039 90023 90003
90002 3. Your ethical judgment will be greatly improved, 90003
90002 4. You will boost your ethical will-power, and; 90003
90002 5. It will greatly increase trust between individuals within a working relationship. Whether they be a colleague or a client. More trust means more work and improved reputation in the long run.90003
90002 Ethical decisions will be faced by many engineers at some point in their careers. You will likely face moral dilemmas in areas like: — 90003
90050
90051 Public safety. 90052
90051 Bribery and fraud. 90052
90051 Environmental protection. 90052
90051 Fairness. 90052
90051 Honesty in Research and testing. 90052
90051 Conflicts of interest. 90052
90063
90002 For these reasons, and many others, it is important than engineers are ethically prepared to «do what is right» in the long run not what is expedient at the moment.90003
90002 Especially when people’s lives and wellbeing could be put at risk. 90003
90012 How is philosophy relevant in business? 90013
90002 Philosophy underpins many aspects of our lives every single day. Whether you are aware of it or not, philosophy defines many of the ways we interact without even noticing it. 90003
90002 90002 90074 90023 90003 90003
90002 But awareness of philosophy can also provide many benefits to an individual’s life. It can also help you fortify yourself for the trials and tribulations of life.90003
90002 This is especially true for business. Ideally, a business will have a product or service that is so good that people will willingly throw money at it. 90003
90002 But when all things are equal amongst competitors, philosophy can give you a serious competitive advantage. This is where the strong core values ​​of a company can give an edge over its competition. 90003
90002 «These core values ​​become the business philosophy that your team and your clients experience. As a business leader, business core values ​​start with 90085 your 90086 core values.90003
90002 When you integrate your values ​​into the business philosophy, your values ​​become part of the company culture. A company that has a positive culture tends to be more efficient and productive. «- the chron.com. 90003
90002 90002 90092 90023 90003 90003
90002 A healthy, positive business culture will help customers and suppliers trust and like you, and allow you to attract and retain staff. In the long run, these factors will greatly improve a company’s success and longevity.90003
90012 Why is philosophy relevant today? 90013
90002 Philosophy has, and will always, be relevant. It is, to put it plainly, the thing that underpins many aspects of our lives from how we treat one another as private individuals to the macro-culture of a nation. 90003
90002 While you may consider philosophy a «soft» subject, it is important to grasp that things like the sciences can not provide meaningful answers on how to live your life. They are also not useful tools for determining what is «good» and «bad — -as some of the atrocities of the 20th Century speak volumes.90003
90002 But, that being said, they are not mutually exclusive. It is also important to appreciate that STEM and philosophy are inextricably linked together. 90003
90002 When you begin to study and learn philosophy you will quickly learn to appreciate how little life has actually changed for individuals. Our struggles today, while different, are incredibly similar to those of our forebears. 90003
90002 «What is the meaning of life?», «How do I live a good life?», «What is my life’s purpose?».These and many other common questions you probably ask yourself in the privacy of your own home have been asked many times before for thousands of years. 90003
90002 90002 90112 90023 90003 90003
90002 «Philosophy is not obsolete. Philosophy brings important questions to the table and works towards an answer. It encourages us to think critically about the world; it is the foundation of all knowledge and when utilized properly, can provide us with huge benefits. » — Alexander Leivesley. 90003
90002 Many of the great philosophers of the past have struggled with these very questions.By integration some of their teachings, you can learn to «hack» life. 90003
90002 After all, you do not need to re-invent the wheel. 90003
90002 But a very important note to make. Philosophy should only be used as a guide, not a dogma. 90003
90002 You and only you can learn to think critically and clearly to find the best course of action for your own life. 90003
90002 90002 90128 90023 90003 90003
90012 7 reasons engineers should learn philosophy 90013
90002 So, that all being said, here are 7 tangible reasons that engineers should learn, and integrate, philosophy into their lives.90003
90136 1. It will make you a better engineer 90137
90002 By integrating ethics and philosophy into your life, it will make you a better engineer overall. It will provide you with improved systemic methodology and with better conceptual clarity. 90003
90002 Most imporantly it will help you develop your critical thinking skills. 90003
90136 2. You are already a philosopher 90137
90002 Every waking moment you are a practicing philosopher whether you know it or not. You are constantly making value judgments and other decisions based on some form of rationale.90003
90002 You might even be asking yourself some of the big questions, or feeling sorry for your lot in life. By integrating some understanding of philosophy, or the teachings of great thinkers of the past will improve your outlook on life. 90003
90148
Source: 90085 905513 / Pixabay 90086

90002 It may even allow you to see a way through tough times that you never knew existed. 90003
90136 3. It will help you understand others ‘perspectives 90137
90002 An understanding of philosophy will improve your ability to interact with others.It will ground you in an intellectual tradition that is larger than yourself. 90003
90002 This will help you attain an understanding, or at least appreciation, of others ‘perspectives. It will make you a better listener, and help you better interact with clients, co-workers and the general public. 90003
90136 4. Philosophy will help you navigate troubled waters 90137
90002 Philosophy will give you the necessary skills to make better value judgments when things in your personal and professional life do not go quite to plan.You will be able to respond better to disorienting times. 90003
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90002 It will also help you boost your confidence and become more self-aware. By understanding that you, and only you, have the power to change a situation in your life, it will give you the confidence boost you need to move forward. 90003
90136 5. It will make you a better communicator 90137
90002 Philosophy will give you the ability to better articulate your thoughts and values.It will also help you analyze why you hold something to be true or not. 90003
90002 Philosophy will challenge you to defend your presuppositions and force you to better communicate your ideas and thoughts. 90003
90002 «In other words, to begin to put together your soundest arguments on what you care about-scientific, moral, political, or otherwise.» — thoughtcatalog.com. 90003
90136 6. Philosophy will help teach you patience 90137
90002 Some philosophical principles can be tricky to get to grips with.They are not always, black or white, right or wrong. 90003
90002 By attempting to study some of the giants of the past, from Aristotle to Locke, you will begin to get an appreciation for thinking things through carefully and thoughtfully. 90003
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90002 Such a skill is of great importance to many other aspects of your life. Professionally it will prevent you from rushing into things without planning ahead, for example. 90003
90002 But of course, you are already doing this.You are an engineer after all. 90003
90136 7. It will make you a happier, stronger and more rounded individual 90137
90002 Philosophy, at its core, is an attempt to understand the human condition. You may well be tempted to pass this off as nonsense, but beware you are a mortal being. 90003
90002 You will die at some point in the future. Your days are numbered, the clock is ticking. 90003
90002 By getting to grips with this it will help you make every day count. You will gain a perspective on what is really important in life — — friends, family, and meaning.90003
90002 This will help you become more grounded and happier in the long run. You’ll learn to appreciate the best life has to offer and cherish your short time on this planet all the more. 90003
90002 Who knows, it may even open a door to help you find that passion you’ve been longing to find! Good luck traveller! 90003
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